Bertuccio's sister-in-law brought the child up, giving him the name "Benedetto", her blessing. Benedetto takes up a life of crime by age He robs his adoptive mother Bertuccio's sister-in-law and kills her, then runs away. Benedetto is sentenced to the galleys with Caderousse, who sold the diamond, but then killed both his wife and the buyer out of greed.
Meanwhile, Caderousse blackmails Andrea, threatening to reveal his past if he does not share his new-found wealth. The moment Caderousse leaves the estate, he is stabbed by Andrea. Caderousse dictates a deathbed statement identifying his killer, and the Count reveals his true identity to Caderousse moments before he dies. Wanting information on how Albert's father made his fortune in Greece years earlier, Danglars researches the events, and the information is published in a French newspaper while Albert and the Count are in Normandy.
Albert's friend Beauchamps sends the news article to Albert who returns to Paris. He rides away from the court in his disgrace. Albert blames the Count for his father's downfall, as Danglars says that the Count encouraged him to do the research on the father of the man engaged to his daughter.
Albert challenges him to a duel. Albert enlists as a soldier. Villefort prosecutes Andrea. Bertuccio visits Andrea who is in prison awaiting trial, to tell him the truth about his father. At his trial, Andrea reveals that he is Villefort's son and was rescued after Villefort buried him alive.
Villefort admits his guilt and flees the court. He rushes home to stop his wife's suicide but is too late; she has poisoned her son as well. After the Count's manipulation of the bond market, Danglars is left with a destroyed reputation and 5,, francs he has been holding in deposit for hospitals.
The Count demands this sum to fulfil their credit agreement, and Danglars embezzles the hospital fund. He abandoned his wife, whom he blames for his losses in stock investments. She is abandoned by her partner in investing, whom she hoped to marry. Danglars flees to Italy with the Count's receipt for the cash he requested from the banker Danglars, and 50, francs.
While leaving Rome, he is kidnapped by the Count's agent Luigi Vampa and is imprisoned. Forced to pay exorbitant prices for food and nearly starved to death, Danglars signs away his ill-gotten gains. Maximilien Morrel, believing Valentine to be dead, contemplates suicide after her funeral. The historical setting is a fundamental element of the book, an adventure story primarily concerned with themes of hope, justice, vengeance, mercy, and forgiveness.
This novel is of particular interest to scholars because Dumas reused many of the ideas and plot devices in The Count of Monte Cristo. Dumas wrote that the germ of the idea of revenge as one theme in his novel The Count of Monte Cristo came from an anecdote Le Diamant et la Vengeance  published in a memoir of incidents in France in , written by an archivist of the Paris police.
Picaud was placed under a form of house arrest in the Fenestrelle Fort , where he served as a servant to a rich Italian cleric. When the cleric died, he left his fortune to Picaud, whom he had begun to treat as a son. Picaud then spent years plotting his revenge on the three men who were responsible for his misfortune. He stabbed the first with a dagger on which the words "Number One" were printed, and then he poisoned the second.
The third man's son he lured into crime and his daughter into prostitution, finally stabbing the man himself. In another of the true stories reported by Ashton-Wolfe, Peuchet describes a poisoning in a family. Serialization ran from 28 August to 15 January Francis Ainsworth in volume VII of Ainsworth's Magazine published in , although this was an abridged summary of the first part of the novel only and was entitled The Prisoner of If.
Ainsworth translated the remaining chapters of the novel, again in abridged form, and issued these in volumes VIII and IX of the magazine in and respectively. The most common English translation is an anonymous one originally published in by Chapman and Hall.
This was originally released in ten weekly installments from March with six pages of letterpress and two illustrations by M Valentin. Most English editions of the novel follow the anonymous translation. In , two of the major American publishers Little Brown and T. Crowell updated the translation, correcting mistakes and revising the text to reflect the original serialized version. In , Collins published an updated version of the anonymous translation which cut several passages, including a whole chapter entitled The Past , and renamed others.
In Oxford released a revised edition with translation by David Coward. The Everyman's Library edition reprints the original anonymous English translation that first appeared in , with revisions by Peter Washington and an introduction by Umberto Eco. In , Penguin Classics published a new translation by Robin Buss. In addition to the above, there have also been many abridged translations such as an edition published by F. Lupton, translated by Henry L.
Williams this translation was also released by M. Ivers in with Williams using the pseudonym of Professor William Thiese. Many abridged translations omit the Count's enthusiasm for hashish. Dumas was a member of the Club des Hashischins. As of March , all movie adaptations of the novel brought to Japan used the title "Gankutsu-ou", with the exception of the film, which has it as a subtitle with the title itself simply being "Monte Cristo". The first translation into Chinese was published in The novel had been a personal favorite of Jiang Qing , and the translation became one of the first mass-popularized foreign novels in mainland China after end of the Cultural Revolution.
Since then, there have been another 22 Chinese translations. Carlos Javier Villafane Mercado described the effect in Europe:. The effect of the serials, which held vast audiences enthralled Day after day, at breakfast or at work or on the street, people talked of little else.
George Saintsbury stated that " Monte Cristo is said to have been at its first appearance, and for some time subsequently, the most popular book in Europe. Perhaps no novel within a given number of years had so many readers and penetrated into so many different countries. The book was "translated into virtually all modern languages and has never been out of print in most of them. There have been at least twenty-nine motion pictures based on it Fantasy novelist Steven Brust 's Khaavren Romances series have all used Dumas novels particularly the Three Musketeers series as their chief inspiration, recasting the plots of those novels to fit within Brust's established world of Dragaera.
New racial discrimination laws were applied in [ citation needed ]. The general was consequently dismissed from the army [ citation needed ] and became profoundly bitter toward Napoleon. In , the body of Napoleon I was brought to France and became an object of veneration in the church of Les Invalides , renewing popular patriotic support for the Bonaparte family. In a small boat, he sailed around the island of Monte Cristo, accompanied by a young prince, a cousin to Louis Bonaparte, who was to become Emperor Napoleon III of the French ten years later, in During this trip, he promised that cousin of Louis Bonaparte that he would write a novel with the island's name in the title.
In when Dumas made his promise, Louis Bonaparte himself was imprisoned at the citadel of Ham — the place mentioned in the novel. Dumas did visit him there,  although Dumas does not mention it in "Etat civil". The play was also unsuccessfully performed at Drury Lane in London later that year where rioting erupted in protest against French companies performing in England.
Two English adaptations of the novel were published in The first, by Hailes Lacy, differs only slightly from Dumas' version with the main change being that Fernand Mondego is killed in a duel with the Count rather than committing suicide. Much more radical was the version by Charles Fechter, a notable French-Anglo actor. The fates of the three main antagonists are also altered: Villefort, whose fate is dealt with quite early on in the play, kills himself after being foiled by the Count trying to kill Noirtier Villefort's half brother in this version ; Mondego kills himself after being confronted by Mercedes; Danglars is killed by the Count in a duel.
The play was first performed at the Adelphi in London in October The original duration was five hours, resulting in Fechter abridging the play, which, despite negative reviews, had a respectable sixteen-week run. Fechter moved to the United States in and Monte Cristo was chosen for the inaugural play at the opening of the Globe Theatre, Boston in Fechter last performed the role in O'Neill, who had never seen Fechter perform, made the role his own and the play became a commercial, if not an artistic success.
O'Neill made several abridgments to the play and eventually bought it from Stetson. A motion picture based on Fechter's play, with O'Neill in the title role, was released in but was not a huge success. O'Neill died in , two years before a more successful motion picture, produced by Fox and partially based on Fechter's version, was released. O'Neill came to despise the role of Monte Cristo, which he performed more than times, feeling that his typecasting had prevented him from pursuing more artistically rewarding roles.
Original plot was slightly changed and some characters are not mentioned in the musical. The Count of Monte Cristo is a musical based on the novel, with influences from the film adaptation of the book. The music is written by Frank Wildhorn and the lyrics and book are by Jack Murphy.
It debuted in Switzerland in From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see The Count of Monte Cristo disambiguation. Novel by Alexandre Dumas. After his transformation into the Count of Monte Cristo, he reveals his true name to his enemies as each revenge is completed. As a result, the Count of Monte Cristo is usually associated with a coldness and bitterness that comes from an existence based solely on revenge. The Maltese Sailor: The name he was known by after his rescue by smugglers from the island of Tiboulen.
Edmond's dearest friend and his mentor and teacher while in prison. On his deathbed, reveals to Edmond the secret treasure hidden on Monte Cristo. Bertuccio's sister-in-law Assunta was the adoptive mother of Benedetto. Luigi Vampa: Celebrated Italian bandit and fugitive. Peppino: Formerly a shepherd, becomes a member of Vampa's gang. The Count arranges for his public execution in Rome to be commuted, causing him to be loyal to the Count. Ali: Monte Cristo's mute Nubian slave.
Caderousse thus decides selfishly that it is best to wait and see what happens before helping Dantes. Danglars also manages to convince Caderousse that he had destroyed the note he had written to incriminate Dantes. He blames Fernand for perhaps copying it and bringing it to the authorities.
But he assures Caderousse that neither he nor Caderousse can suffer any ill from the ordeal, since the note was anonymous. In the meantime, Fernand becomes Mercedes' protector, and Danglars is to become captain of the Pharaon until Dantes returns. Danglars believes that Dantes shall not return, however. The chapter illustrates how Dumas used historical events as a backdrop for his writing.
Danglars takes advantage of the political situation in France to incriminate his nemesis. Napoleon is in exile and the royalists are in power, thus anyone accused of being in league with the former ruler is to be severely punished. Within this politically unstable system, all Danglars must do to dispose of Dantes is to accuse Dantes of being a Bonapartist agent.
Danglars is revealed to be deceptive in all ways. Not only has he denounced Dantes, but he also manages to convince Caderousse that it was Fernand and not himself who was responsible. Danglars, of course, was the mastermind of the plan.
The chapter closes with a monologue by Danglars that reveals to the reader that he has achieved his goals, and that most likely Dantes will not return. These statements coupled with the incriminating letter are symbols of the Danglars' treachery. Danglars also reassures Caderousse that the dirty deed cannot be traced back to them, since the letter was in a disguised handwriting.
He neglects to realize that it shall later become obvious to Dantes with the help of Abbe Faria who was responsible for denouncing him, since he shall merely have to look for a motive. Fernand marries Mercedes and Danglars, becomes captain of the Pharaon. Caderousse will be proven correct in his fears, for Dantes' incarceration shall eventually lead to the downfall of his accusers.
The following chapter introduces Monsieur de Villefort , a deputy public prosecutor. He, like Dantes, is about to be married. His marriage feast is interrupted by news of Dantes' arrest. Villefort must attend to Dantes' case. He thus leaves his betrothal party. Villefort is a staunch royalist, whose father is a Bonapartist. Thus, Villefort must prove his political opinion by dealing harshly with Bonapartist conspirators.
Dantes makes a favorable impression on Villefort, however. He has a candid air even with his inquisitor. He reveals how he landed on the island of Elba and was given a letter by Napoleon to be delivered to Paris. The fact that he was merely carrying out orders of the dying Captain Leclere seems to prove Dantes as innocent. Villefort is about to release Dantes, yet when Dantes reveals to him to whom the letter was addressed he immediately changes his mind.
The letter was addressed to Noirtier, who happens to be Villefort's Bonapartist father. Thus, Villefort must now try to cover the conspiracy to save his own name. He thus burns the letter, and tells Dantes to deny its existence. He will keep Dantes a prisoner. At the close of the chapter Villefort even thinks of a way to turn the letter, which could have ruined him, into a fortune.
How he will do this is yet to be revealed. This chapter introduces Dantes' fourth enemy. Villefort is merely concerned with his own public image as a royalist. He will do whatever will further his career. He deceives Dantes trust by telling the accused to deny the existence of the Bonapartist letter. This was, however, for his own public protection and not Dantes' benefit. Villefort's lies are yet another symbol of the evil forces at work against Dantes.
Dantes symbolizes good, thus when he later takes revenge upon his enemies, this shall symbolize the triumph of good over evil. Dantes is escorted to prison, where he awaits release. Monsieur de Villefort had assured him of a timely release. Guards do come, but instead they row him to the infamous Chateau D'If, an island prison. This is a prison for political offenders.
Dantes spends his first night standing up. He does not move. When the jailer comes to see him, Dantes demands to see the governor. He also asks the jailer to deliver a few lines to Mercedes. When the jailer refuses he threatens him, even grabbing a stool. This is when Dantes is thrown into the dungeon as a "madman. Dantes does not comprehend why he is not released, for Villefort had given him indication of a timely release.
For this reason, he is thrown into a deeper darker dungeon. The dungeon serves as a metaphor for his mental state; his inability to comprehend the reason's for his plight lead him deeper into darkness and confusion. Dantes' desire to reach Mercedes symbolizes his refusal to accept his removal from the outside world.
He is now a nameless prisoner. The guards ensure his complete removal from society by throwing him away into the darkest dungeon. Only when Dantes meets the Abbe Faria, another prisoner with whom he will come into contact, will he learn of Villefort's treachery and swear to revenge.
Monsieur de Villefort visits the King to warn him of a plot to restore Napoleon as Emperor. He tells the King of his meeting with Dantes, who landed on the Island of Elba to meet with the usurper Napoleon. He also reassures the king that Dantes is now in prison. The Minister of Police brings news of Napoleon's arrival in France just as Villefort is meeting with the king.
Louis is astonished that Napoleon was able to enter the country unnoticed for two days. The former emperor is now advancing towards Paris. He commends Villefort for his warning, and gives him his cross of the Legion of Honor.
Villefort is quite happy with himself to have gained royal favor. This chapter is an ideal example of Dumas' genius. He melds the excitement of an adventure novel with historical conflict. The action takes place right before Napoleon returns to rule, ousting the royalists.
A man such as Monsieur Villefort's plans to utilize this situation for his own political benefit. His scheme to warn the King of the threat of Bonapartists in Marseilles is revealed. Though he had recognized Dantes' innocence, he uses Dantes' story to further his royalist goals. Dantes is thus a victim of the selfish, politically minded Villefort. While Dantes rots in prison, Villefort wins favor with the King at Dantes' expense.
The cross of the Legion of Honor is a symbol of the King's appreciation of Villefort's service, however, this token's value will be worthless under Napoleon's potential upcoming regime. The ephemeral quality of this cross is a metaphor for life's inconsistencies. One never knows when one's fate is to change. Dantes, for example, was about to have a prosperous happy life, yet from one day to the next he was doomed to rot in prison. Dantes is forgotten in prison throughout the changing political regimes.
Napoleon returns to power but only temporarily. Morrel pleads on Dantes' behalf during Napoleon's empire, yet to no avail. Fernand joins the army of the Emperor, and leaves Mercedes. Fernand still hopes that one day she shall be his. When Napoleon returns to power, Danglars worries that Dantes will return.
Thus, fearing revenge, he quits his post with M. Morrel and flees for Madrid. Dantes' father dies and M. Morrel clears the old man's remaining debts. This chapter summarizes the reaction that the characters have to the changing political regimes. This is contrasted to Dantes, who is unaware of it all. He rots in prison, forgotten by the bureaucracy that threw him in his cell. His father dies of poverty and hunger.
Only the good M. Morrel remains faithful to him. He still pleads Dantes' cause and clears up his father's debts. Mercedes still pines for him, yet is comforted by Fernand, who is still hoping for her love. Though her love for Dantes will never cease, she will succumb to the one constant figure in her life, Fernand.
Mercedes thus eventually marries him because she fears the thought of loneliness, and Fernand is now wealthy enough to care for her quite well. Villefort, on the other hand, uses marriage to improve his social standing. Ironically, it is the evil Villefort who has the patience to wait to marry. This patience stands in contrast to Mercedes, who does not wait all that long before marrying Fernand.
In fact, her desire to marry so quickly may in a strange way be taken as a symbol for her love for Dantes, for it was so great that she could not bear to be left alone. Her passion needed to be subdued by a replacement, in the form of Fernand. Villefort's only passion, however, is his social standing, and he thus postpones his marriage until the political climate favors his marriage to a royalist's daughter. The story next returns to Dantes in prison. Dantes has lost hope and decides to commit suicide by starvation.
He throws his food out the window. His resolve to die is broken by the sounds of another prisoner's digging. The thoughts of escape and the thoughts of a companion rejuvenate him. He manages to dislodge a stone to talk to the prisoner. The prisoner tells him that he has been imprisoned since , four years before Dantes' incarceration. He also tells Dantes that if Dantes was nineteen years old in , than Dantes is now almost twenty-six years old.
More time has passed than Dantes realized. This chapter focuses on Dantes' character. He still cannot comprehend why he was thrown into prison. His happiness was ruined for no reason. He thus has no desire to live anymore, for imprisonment has crushed his previously exuberant soul. His suicide attempt shows that he now doubts the existence of good. The arrival of the other prisoner, digging through the wall, is a critical turning point. For the first time we are introduced to character who cannot be subdued, not even by stone walls.
This ability to overcome impossible obstacles is one that will be transferred to Dantes, and it will forever change his character. This chapter witnesses the meeting and the friendship of Dantes with another political prisoner, Abbe Faria. This prisoner has spent years tunneling his way to freedom, and a miscalculation has led him to Dantes' cell.
The Abbe is crushed and his energy to escape is as well.