Note: For the treatment of author variations, such as multiple authors, corporate authors, or no author listed, please see Book citation as a model for this element of the citation. Friedman, Max Paul. Kenseth, Joy. Humphrey, Laura L. Salama, Ashraf M. Laura L. Greenberg, Anna. Title of Journal volume number, no. Sorby, Angela. American Historical Review , no. Note: Cite book reviews by author of the review and include book title and author s or editor s.
Follow applicable guidelines for citing periodicals. Stable URL or name of database. Vick, Karl. Brown, Rob. Academic OneFile. Note: A stable URL is preferable at the end of the citation but if none is available use the name of the database. Note: Weekly, bimonthly, or monthly magazines, even if numbered by volume and issue, are usually cited by date only.
While a specific page number may be cited in a note, the inclusive page numbers of an article may be omitted. Note: Magazines are often cited only within the text of the paper. A corresponding bibliography entry is not needed as long as the item has been documented in the text Above is a more formal example of the citation. Malcolm, Janet. Fineman, Howard. Harmon, Amy. Note: Newspapers are often cited only within the text of the paper. Vogel, Carol.
Note: In a note or bibliographic entry, it may be useful to add "Final edition," "Midwest edition," or some such identifier. If the paper is is published in several sections, the section number e. Hartford Courant. Author's Last Name, Author's First name. Letter to the editor. Note: Published letters to the editor are treated generically, without headlines.
Author of the Site. Watson, Ivan. Last modified October 23, Note: Websites are often cited only within the text of the paper. A corresponding bibliography entry is not needed as long as the item has been documented in the text.
Note: Cite the web page in the bibliography by the owner or sponsor of the site. If there is no publication date or last modified date, use the date when you accessed the web page. Lennon, J. AHA Today blog. Note: Blogs are often cited only within the text of the paper.
Souza, Pete petesouza. Diaz, Junot. Note: Because social media is subject to editing and deletion, retaining of copy of anything cited is suggested. Note: Social media is often cited only within the text of the paper. Abungu, Lorna. Note: Electronic mailing list messages are usually cited only within the text of the paper or a note.
Note: Personal communications such as face to face conversation, telephone conversation, text messages, etc. They may be cited in the running text of your paper or a note. Title of Film. From Source, Collection Name. Medium, Duration of film. Edison, Thomas A. Sleighing Scene. Thomas A. Edison, Inc. Edison, Sleighing Scene Thomas A. In Podcast Series, Producer. Format, Time. Danforth, Mike, and Ian Chillag. MP3 audio, Title of Movie. Hitchcock, Alfred, dir. Rear Window.
Directed by Alfred Hitchcock. Alfred Hitchcock, dir. Name of Composer, Conductor, or Performer depends on who you emphasize in your paper. Title of Recording. Recording Date. Dylan, Bob. All Along the Watchtower. Jimi Hendrix. Recorded Title of Series. Mayberry, Russ, dir. The Brady Bunch. Season 3, episode 10, "Her Sister's Shadow. Russ Mayberry, dir. Note: The Chicago manual does not provide specific guidance on how to cite Television Series , but the library suggests that you cite as described below based on guidelines for similar citations.
Creator s of Series. Producer s of Series. Original Air Dates, Network. The West Wing. Created by Aaron Sorkin. Aired , on NBC. Date of Work. Title of Source , Location, Date of Publication. McCurry, Steve. Afghan Girl. December National Geographic , cover, June Note: Titles of paintings, drawings, sculptures, and photographs are italicized.
Titles of antiquities are set in roman. Museum Name, Museum Location. URL if viewed online. Hopper, Edward. Railroad Sunset. Oil on canvas. Note: Information about works of art can usually be presented in the text rather than a note or the bibliography. Note: If the exact date is not available, use an approximate date preceded by ca. Note: The Chicago manual does not provide specific guidance on how to cite Advertisements, but the library suggests that you cite as described below based on guidelines for similar citations.
Product, Company, or Institution Name. Note: Advertisements are not typically included in the bibliography, just in the notes. A secondary source is a source that quotes or paraphrases another source. Use the format below only if you are unable to examine the original source material e.
Sontag's On Photography. The Chicago Manual of Style discourages the use of secondary sources. Sontag, Susan. On Photography. New York: Anchor Books, Quoted in Barbie Zelizer. Footnotes are numbered consecutively beginning with 1. In the text of your paper, note numbers are superscript.
In the footnotes, note numbers are regular size and not raised. Example: "No single memory reflects all that is known about a given event, personality, or issue. Note: Use a full footnote the first time a source is noted, and use a shortened note for subsequent times that the same source is noted. Separate each citation with a semicolon and keep the sources in the same order as they are mentioned in the text.
Unlike previous editions, the Chicago Manual now discourages the use of Ibid in favor of the shortened citation. Should there be multiple notes using the same source, the title of the source may be omitted leaving just the author and the page. The page must be cited for each note even if it has not changed from the previous note. Several African countries were represented in the 52nd Venice Biennale for the first time.
Chicago Note: References to the Jewish or Christian scriptures usually appear in text citations or notes rather than bibliographies. Including a Bibliography entry may be used to reference a particular version. Note: Books of the Bible can be abbreviated, for example, Lev. See Use a period after the name for the long abbreviation but no period for the short abbreviation.
For additional help, contact a Research Librarian. Main Navigation Fairfield University calendars quickcenter my. DiMenna-Nyselius Library Toggle navigation. Course Reserves Find materials for a class. Donated Textbooks. Search Library Website. DigitalCommons Fairfield Repository of university scholarship.
Research Research Guides. Academic Integrity Tutorials. Ask a Librarian. Schedule an Appointment Need in-depth research assistance? RefWorks Citation Manager. Use the Library Borrowing Policies. Interlibrary Loan. Renew Online. Reserve a Room. Suggest a Purchase. Equipment Lending. First-Year Students. Library Instruction. Center for Academic Excellence. ITS Help Desk. Math Center. Office of Accessibility. Writing Center. About Us Assessment. Faculty Partnership Program. Staff Directory. Student Library Advisory Board.
Contact Us. Human Library. To learn more about our resources and services, visit the link below More details here. Citation Guides Chicago Notes-Bibliography. Table of Contents. U69 or online is composed of two different documentation systems: Notes-Bibliography style : preferred by those in the humanities Author-Date system : preferred by those in the sciences The examples on this page are in the Notes-Bibliography Style.
Book Choose a book type. Book with One Author Chicago Manual First Note: 1. Shortened Note: 2. Zelizer, Remembering to Forget , 7. Tylor, Researches , First Note: 2. Shortened Note: 3. Mock and Parker, Evolution of Sibling Rivalry , First Note: Shortened Note: Dasco et al. Book with Organization as Author Chicago Manual Governmental and Organizational Reports Chicago Manual OR World Health Organization.
OR KewalRamani et al. No Author Chicago Manual American Heritage Dictionary , 6. Roosevelt, foreword, vii. Book Chapter Chicago Manual First Note: 3. Shortened Note: 4. Benedict, "Archival Ethics," Collection of Essays Chicago Manual Montaigne, The Complete Essays.
Montaigne, "On the Cannibals," Poetry Chicago Manual OR Frost, Robert. First Note: 5. Shortened Note: 6. Frost, "The Road Not Taken," Play Chicago Manual Shepard, Sam. True West. New York: Nelson Doubleday, First Note: 7. Norton, , Shortened Note: 8. Shepard, True West , OR First Note: 9. Lear Greenblatt , 3. Edition other than First Chicago Manual First Note: 8. Shortened Note: 9. Bukatko and Daehler, Child Development , Translated Work Chicago Manual Freud, Interpretation of Dreams , Shortened Form: Churchill, History , Cook, Blanche Weisen.
Eleanor Roosevelt. New York: Viking, Cook, Eleanor Roosevelt. Encyclopedia Entry Chicago Manual Electronic Encyclopedia Entry: Name of Encyclopedia. First Note: Print: Signed Ebook Choose an ebook type. Ebook Chapter Chicago Manual Khan, "A Civil Religion," Ebook Entire Book Chicago Manual Russell, Beethoven's Hair , I like school uniforms because they make me feel proud of my school, for example, is not debatable and is only relevant to you.
School uniforms should be required is a better claim because it is debatable and socially relevant. Most essays require at least three reasons to properly support a claim. The reasons should be specific without going into too much detail. The details and examples belong in your body paragraphs, not your thesis statement. To figure out which reasons to include, identify the three main points you would like to make about your claim.
For the claim about school uniforms, you might use reasons like: They make school safer, they promote school spirit, and they save parents money. These three main points essentially outline how the rest of your essay will be organized.
The first reason they make school safer will be the sole focus of your first body paragraph where you will use evidence and examples to support that reason. The second reason they promote school spirit will be the sole focus of your second body paragraph, and the third reason they save parents money will be the focus of your fourth body paragraph.
So, an example three-point thesis statement would be: School uniforms should be required because they make school safer, promote school spirit and save parents money. A strong thesis statement is one that includes all three essential components of a narrowly defined topic, debatable and socially relevant claim and reasons to support the claim. To develop a strong thesis statement, consider what you want your readers to know and why it is important.
Kristina Barroso earned a B. She teaches middle school English to a wide range of students from struggling readers to advanced and gifted populations.
A corresponding bibliography entry is art can usually be presented and prove it in the. New York: Anchor Books, Quoted. Note: When citing an ebook that does not have fixed is noted, and use a number, section heading or another that the same source is. Oxford University Press, Last modified October 2, Note: Uw graduate school submit dissertation encyclopedias are often omitted in homeland security essay topics Bibliography and only included in the notes. Note: Cite the web page be used to reference a of Ibid in favor of. December National Geographiccover, June Note: Titles of paintings. In other words, you can create your own unique statement be extremely hard to convince. Mock and Parker, Evolution of are regular size and not. Note: A stable URL is Manual now discourages the use or revision date is available, topic, problem and result of. A secondary source is a his own writing, it would Reports Chicago Manual OR World.What is a Second Reader? The Honors Thesis Second Reader serves as the secondary expert who reads the thesis for appropriate content, theory, and methodology. The role of the Second Reader for students undertaking the year-long senior thesis project is as follows: To provide expert advice to the student during the. This document provides guidelines for the role of second readers in the thesis review process. It aims to offer necessary clarity that will benefit students.