thesis of blink malcolm gladwell

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Thesis of blink malcolm gladwell

The book is written in popular science format and focuses on investigating how first impressions help us make right decisions in some situations and betray us in other situations. Blink generally conveys the idea that it is important to understand the impact of quick decisions, their strengths, and pitfalls.

If Blink is the book you need to focus on in your literature review , you need to know the key ideas reflected in the book, which will help you understand what the book is about. In Introduction, Gladwell tells the story about J. After month examinations and analysis of core samples, the statue was finally put on display A number of art experts started expressing their doubts about statue authenticity and eventually, the statue was proven to be a forgery.

Gladwell refers to this example throughout the book to prove his point that the first impression is often the one we can trust. In this chapter, Gladwell focuses on explaining how thin-slicing, or rapid cognition, works in everyday life while making decisions. The author states that often have a little information about a person or situation is enough to make correct conclusions. In this part of the book, one of the key ideas is explained, in particular, that what we think we like or dislike differs from what we actually like or dislike.

The author reveals that tennis coach Vic Braden could accurately predict whether a player would double fault and struggle to explain this ability of his. In this chapter, Gladwell changes perspective and focuses on negative effects of thin-slicing, especially the Warren Harding error.

The author states that millions of Americans voted for Warren Harding because he was good-looking, while eventually, he turned out to be one of the worst presidents in history. The author also reveals that people can detect the Warren Harding error and make efforts to fight it, trying to make unbiased decisions. In this chapter, the author also says that in one study of car dealerships indicates that black people generally received higher offers than white people, which indicates thin-slicing.

Overall, this chapter suggests that thin-slicing can have various negative outcomes. This chapter focuses on the practical example of using rapid-fire decision making to increase efficiency of decisions. The author focuses the entire chapter on telling the story of Paul Van Riper, former Marine Corps commander in Vietnam, who was asked to be the ruler of the Red Team in Millenium Challenge In this war game conducted by the U. In addition, the Blue Team had advantages in every aspect of the game.

As a result, encouraging people to make decisions based on their instincts helped Van Riper win the game. This chapter demonstrates that first impression and thin-slicing can be usefully combined with deliberate and analytical thinking and decision making. In this chapter, the author focuses on the potential of using thin-slicing in marketing. In another example, the author tells how Coca-Cola launched New Coke in the s that had a taste similar to Pepsi because Pepsi had a better response than Coke during blind taste tests.

Therefore, expert opinions are necessary to explain quick decisions. So far, Gladwell has been talking about how thin-slicing can be a helpful way for humans to understand the world. In Chapter Three, he talks about stereotyping—i. The political career of President Warren Harding is a great example of how wrong snap judgments can be.

Millions of people elected Harding because he looked presidential—and yet he turned out to be one of the worst presidents in history. While one could interpret this evidence to prove that car salesmen are consciously being racist, Gladwell suggests a more subtle explanation: even if car salesmen are tolerant and unbiased in their conscious minds, they may still make racist judgments about people when they thin-slice.

In the second half of the book, Gladwell explores some of the case studies of his theory of thin-slicing. In Chapter Five, Gladwell studies the process of polling, a good example of how poorly people understand their own needs and desires. Gladwell discusses many examples of successful products margarine, the Aeron chair, the TV show All in the Family that tested poorly but ended up being hugely successful.

In Chapter Six, Gladwell studies the tragic case of Amadou Diallo , an immigrant who was murdered by four plainclothes police officers in In the Conclusion, Gladwell talks about the rise of blind auditions in the world of classical music—which has led to record numbers of women entering elite orchestras. Blind auditions are a great example of rapid cognition at its best, because they allow judges and selection committees to hear performers without any biases or prejudices. However, by controlling the process of thin-slicing just a little—by training police officers to interpret facial cues more accurately, by introducing blind auditions, etc.

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Gladwell uses sarcasm in many parts of the book, especially in the anecdotal details. One of the arguments claimed by Gladwell is that irrelevant information deluges clear thinking; however, he makes the most of the irrelevant part. Several examples provided by Gladwell are bland and occupied with cliches. Though Gladwell states that the brain is responsible for rapid cognitive thinking, he never mentions how the brain works in this regard. Gladwell disregarded the concept of priming, which disappoints the readers.

With the present business scenarios, all the stories narrated in the book do not hold good, but a majority of them are still applicable. Though the topic is a fairly new one, it attracts the readers for the very reason that the book contains several case scenarios and theories that relate to the real life.

If one ignores the fact that Gladwell failed to provide a supporting evidence to prove the superiority of rapid cognition over articulate thinking, the rest of the book is interesting and impressive to the readers. The overall concept is new and seems to fall in a fiction genre, though the author claims the book to be a psychological literature. The conscious awareness created by Gladwell in the readers helps to realize whether the brain really functions the way Gladwell claims.

Finally, it would have been better if Gladwell handled the subject in the form of a journal article keeping it short and simple, instead of a long book. We accept sample papers from students via the submission form. If this essay belongs to you and you no longer want us to display it, you can put a claim on it and we will remove it. Just fill out the removal request form with all necessary details, such as page location and some verification of you being a true owner.

Please note that we cannot guarantee that unsubstantiated claims will be satisfied. Note: this sample is kindly provided by a student like you, use it only as a guidance. ID Password recovery email has been sent to email email. Type of Paper. Essay Topics. Educational Tools. Malcolm Gladwell. Blink Of An Eye. The Reader. Accessed 20 July March Accessed July 20, Retrieved July 20, Free Essay Examples - WowEssays.

Published Mar 12, Share with friends using:. Removal Request. Finished papers: This paper is created by writer with ID If you want your paper to be: Well-researched, fact-checked, and accurate Original, fresh, based on current data Eloquently written and immaculately formatted. Hire this Writer. Deadline 3 hours 6 hours 12 hours 24 hours 2 days 3 days 7 days 14 days 20 days. Submit your old papers to our essay database and help fellow students to learn from example. This is your chance to pay it forward!

Submit Your Paper. Can't find a free sample that matches your requirements? Our services. Related Essays. Accounting Standards Dissertation. Business Network Security Dissertation Examples. Eyes on the Prize Essays Examples. Fight Club Movie Reviews Examples. Free Essay On Alfred Stieglitz. Richard Wright Book Review Sample. Good Essay About Otaku Challenge. Types of Book Reviews. Custom Writing. Premium Database. After looking at the statue for just a couple seconds, they had an intuitive feeling that something was wrong about the statue.

Sure enough, the statue turned out to be a likely forgery, sold on the black market. Blink is a book about intuitive feelings and snap judgments—judgments which are often though not necessarily more accurate and insightful than months of analysis. The psychologist John Gottman has trained himself to thin slice interactions between married couples. By studying the conversational patterns and facial cues of a couple for just a few minutes, Gottman can predict to a near-certainty whether or not the couple will still be married in 15 years.

While Gottman is an expert at thin-slicing, Gladwell argues that all human beings are innately good at thin-slicing. Gladwell has shown that rapid cognition allows people to make often surprisingly accurate judgments about the world. So far, Gladwell has been talking about how thin-slicing can be a helpful way for humans to understand the world. In Chapter Three, he talks about stereotyping—i. The political career of President Warren Harding is a great example of how wrong snap judgments can be.

Millions of people elected Harding because he looked presidential—and yet he turned out to be one of the worst presidents in history. While one could interpret this evidence to prove that car salesmen are consciously being racist, Gladwell suggests a more subtle explanation: even if car salesmen are tolerant and unbiased in their conscious minds, they may still make racist judgments about people when they thin-slice.

In the second half of the book, Gladwell explores some of the case studies of his theory of thin-slicing. In Chapter Five, Gladwell studies the process of polling, a good example of how poorly people understand their own needs and desires. Gladwell discusses many examples of successful products margarine, the Aeron chair, the TV show All in the Family that tested poorly but ended up being hugely successful.

In Chapter Six, Gladwell studies the tragic case of Amadou Diallo , an immigrant who was murdered by four plainclothes police officers in In the Conclusion, Gladwell talks about the rise of blind auditions in the world of classical music—which has led to record numbers of women entering elite orchestras. Blind auditions are a great example of rapid cognition at its best, because they allow judges and selection committees to hear performers without any biases or prejudices.

However, by controlling the process of thin-slicing just a little—by training police officers to interpret facial cues more accurately, by introducing blind auditions, etc. Plot Summary. Intuition Free Will. All Characters. LitCharts Teacher Editions. Teach your students to analyze literature like LitCharts does.

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Gladwell goes on to present several supporting evidence to back up his thesis. These include verifiable cases from the domains of gambling, speed dating, strategy video games and malpractice suits. And I have to admit that most of them are quite convincing. Hence, spontaneous decisions tend to be as good as deliberate, thought out ones. Gladwell presents numerous examples from the fields of marketing, medicine, science and popular music to illustrate his point.

He proceeds to explain the questioning of the statue and to ascertain the truth of how owners maintain the museum to stay open in public. Although the museum faced several conflicts, it was proven that the ownership documents were forged, and yet the museum reopened.

Chapter I. He employs different concepts to illustrate the individuals within their power of thinking without thinking, in providing an example of married couples. By watching videotapes of married couples, the research team began to specify a system that reveals many deep-seated problems in the marriage through their body language patterns and gestures. Chapter II. The author explains the different experiment that was done to help prove his reasoning by the students who participated in small tests.

This can encourage us to rethink of how certain we are with our thoughts. Gladwell also demonstrates how humans seem to be naturally ill at ease with ambiguity, so we unconsciously create stories that account for decisions we make or within our actions. Chapter III. Due to this error, people can cause others to create false conclusions without any thinking further.

In other words, we can have a better control with our thoughts and even form a more accurate judgment for ourselves. Chapter IV. Often, Gladwell contends, the best decisions are made by relying on only a few pieces of information which could just prolong the process and not become useful. Chapter V. Gladwell demonstrates that removing a problem from its normal context makes it very difficult for us to actually make accurate decisions. Eventually it is realized that most people would continuously make incorrect judgment when it is not based on their range in knowledge and how it will appeals to others.

Chapter VI. Gladwell uses an expert studies, like a man named Amadou Diallo, who was shot and killed by police officers after the misjudgments that happened and became a huge mistakes. This shows that the kind of adrenaline rush can cause the brain in creating an inappropriate actions and could hurt the others around us. The book ends with Glawell encouraging readers to take this lesson and learn from it in order to make positive outcomes and change the habit of making rapid decisions.

Rhetorical Analysis: Exigence- Malcolm Glawell was motivated by his desire to show people that making quick decisions have more value than what we actually think. Audience- The audience would presumably be for those who believe that the best decisions are made after a certain amount of time in collecting and analyzing of high-quality information. His writing is directed to people who often make snap judgments and first impressions for better means of making sense of the world and by not believing in the validity of blink decisions.

His purpose enlightens and educates the readers for them to take action and use their ability in cultivating ourselves. Logos- The author provided an insight of using logical appeal such as statistics due to how this book is based upon a true story. Gladwell refers to the laboratory work of a psychologist named John Gottman at the University of Washington.

Gottman has created a coding system that can be used to analyze a videotape in every conceivable emotion that a married couple might express during a conversation. From the statistics that he provided, the readers would be aware of making decisions with only little information given in a short amount of time.

Pathos- Gladwell may have not use a strong emotion but instead he was able to use his technique in addressing the reader directly which increases the amount of communication between himself and the reader. This system assembled the rules for reading and interprets thousands of combinations of movements or its actions that make up facial expressions. Malcolm Gladwell is also the author of the number 1 international bestseller The Tipping Point.

Gladwell is a staff writer for The New Yorker and was formerly a business and science reporter at the Washington Post back cover. The author establishes his credibility to get the reader to acknowledge his talent as a writer. The author ensure the book is less boring which he added questions that needed to be answer in order for the reader to take notice and understand his position.

Delivery- The book was very plain and was kept simple. The inside of the book was organized by the introduction, 6 chapters, conclusion, and several extra-textual elements which it provides more information for the readers. Also, there are several people who deserve special thanks like Terry Martin and Henry Finder, as they did with The Tipping Point — wrote long and extraordinary critiques of the early drafts.

Suzy Hansen and the incomparable Pamela Marshall brought focus and clarity to the text and rescued Gladwell from embarrassment and error The author trusted these amazing people to make revision throughout the book to make it more presentable and effective to the eyes of the readers.

The genre was given on the left corner at very top of the book with the font color of white.

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Both groups were connected to sensors which measured their physiological reactions pulse and body temperature. Interestingly the latter group showed the same physical reactions as the first group. In a study done by Fritz Strack and his colleagues, students had to watch a movie. One group did so with a pen between their teeth while the other group had to hold the pen with their lips.

The first group interpreted the movie funnier than the second, because the muscles responsible for smiling were used and then made the brain release hormones related to being happy. The book finishes with the case of sexism suffered by Abbie Conant , when she was the trombone soloist of the Munich Philharmonic , and its director, Sergiu Celibidache , relegated her to minor positions, made her receive a lower wage than her male colleagues and looked down on her from to , when she finally left the orchestra.

Richard Posner , a professor at the University of Chicago and a judge on the United States Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit , argues that Gladwell in Blink fails to follow his own recommendations regarding thin-slicing, and makes a variety of unsupported assumptions and mistakes in his characterizations of the evidence for his thesis. In Think! He criticizes Gladwell for propagating unscientific notions:. As naturopathic medicine taps into a deep mystical yearning to be healed by nature, Blink exploits popular new-age beliefs about the power of the subconscious, intuition, even the paranormal.

Blink devotes a significant number of pages to the so-called theory of mind reading. While allowing that mind-reading can "sometimes" go wrong, the book enthusiastically celebrates the apparent success of the practice, despite hosts of scientific tests showing that claims of clairvoyance rarely beat the odds of random chance guessing. Nobel prize winner Daniel Kahneman , author of Thinking, Fast and Slow which speaks to rationality's advantages over intuition, says:.

Malcolm Gladwell does not believe that intuition is magic. He really doesn't But here his story has helped people, in a belief that they want to have, which is that intuition works magically; and that belief, is false. In an article titled "Understanding Unconscious Intelligence and Intuition: Blink and Beyond", Lois Isenman agrees with Gladwell that the unconscious mind has a surprising knack for 'thinking without thinking' but argues that its ability to integrate many pieces of information simultaneously provides a much more inclusive explanation than thin-slicing.

She writes:. Gladwell often speaks of the importance of holism to unconscious intelligence, meaning that it considers the situation as a whole. At the same time, he stresses that unconscious intelligence relies on finding simple underlying patterns. However, only when a situation is overwhelmingly determined by one or a few interacting factors is holism consistent with simple underlying signatures. In many situations, holism and simple underlying signatures pull in different directions. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Redirected from Blink book. Dewey Decimal. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. CiteSeerX PMID ISBN OCLC The New York Times. Retrieved USA Today. Back Bay Books. Die Macht des Moments. The New Republic. The Daily Telegraph. New York. Archived from the original on March 15, American Heart Journal.

Works by Malcolm Gladwell. Revisionist History — Categories : Psychology books non-fiction books Works by Malcolm Gladwell Popular psychology books. Hidden categories: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list Articles with short description Short description matches Wikidata. Namespaces Article Talk. Argumentative assignments may also require empirical research where the student collects data through interviews, surveys, observations, or experiments. Regardless of the amount or type of research involved, argumentative essays must establish a clear thesis and follow sound reasoning.

In the first paragraph of an argument essay, students should set the context by reviewing the topic in a general way. Next the author should explain why the topic is important exigence or why readers should care about the issue.

Lastly, students should present the thesis statement. It is essential that this thesis statement be appropriately narrowed to follow the guidelines set forth in the assignment. If the student does not master this portion of the essay, it will be quite difficult to compose an effective or persuasive essay.

Transitions are the mortar that holds the foundation of the essay together. Transitions should wrap up the idea from the previous section and introduce the idea that is to follow in the next section. Each paragraph should be limited to the discussion of one general idea. This will allow for clarity and direction throughout the essay. It is important to note that each paragraph in the body of the essay must have some logical connection to the thesis statement in the opening paragraph.

Some paragraphs will directly support the thesis statement with evidence collected during research. It is also important to explain how and why the evidence supports the thesis warrant. However, argumentative essays should also consider and explain differing points of view regarding the topic. Depending on the length of the assignment, students should dedicate one or two paragraphs of an argumentative essay to discussing conflicting opinions on the topic.

Rather than explaining how these differing opinions are wrong outright, students should note how opinions that do not align with their thesis might not be well informed or how they might be out of date. The argumentative essay requires well-researched, accurate, detailed, and current information to support the thesis statement and consider other points of view. Some factual, logical, statistical, or anecdotal evidence should support the thesis.

However, students must consider multiple points of view when collecting evidence. As noted in the paragraph above, a successful and well-rounded argumentative essay will also discuss opinions not aligning with the thesis. It is unethical to exclude evidence that may not support the thesis. It is at this point of the essay that students may begin to struggle.

This is the portion of the essay that will leave the most immediate impression on the mind of the reader. Therefore, it must be effective and logical. Do not introduce any new information into the conclusion; rather, synthesize the information presented in the body of the essay. Restate why the topic is important, review the main points, and review your thesis. You may also want to include a short discussion of more research that should be completed in light of your work. Learn what elements every argumentative essay should include and how to structure it depending on your audience in this easy step-by-step guide.

Argumentative essays should have a straightforward structure so they are easy for readers to follow. The goal of an argumentative essay is to clearly outline a point of view, reasoning, and evidence. A good argumentative essay should follow this structure:. These steps will help you get your point across clearly and concisely:. There are five types of argument claims that can drive your essay:.

There are three main ways to structure an argumentative essay. Choose one of the following or combine them to write your persuasive paper:. Renowned nonfiction storyteller and bestselling author of Blink and The Tipping Point , Malcolm Gladwell has spent decades honing his craft.

His books have helped millions of readers grasp complex ideas like behavioral economics and performance prediction. In his class, Malcolm provides insight into how to research topics and distills big ideas into simple, powerful narratives. Want to become a better writer? The definition of an argumentative essay is a research paper that takes a position on a controversial issue and tries to present evidence in favor of that position. The world is full of argumentative essay topics.

You can select a high-profile subject like abortion or go for a smaller fish like organic eating. This will make the research and writing — dare we say — fun. The first sample essay below follows the sample outline presented in Argumentative Essay Outlines. The basic formula is this:. Body Paragraphs — containing at least three striking arguments and one rebuttal to the opposing side.

This essay is something a high schooler might consider as they prepare for the four most exciting years of their lives — college. Much of our learning takes place outside the classroom. We learn how to maintain budgets, forge friendships, develop business relationships, and more. Imagine extending those skills on a global level. We would immediately cease to believe the world only contains the people and things we can see but, rather, a wide variety of opinions, customs, beliefs, and ethics.

This is why every college-level student must study abroad during their undergraduate years. They will learn more in that semester abroad than in any other academic year. According to IES Abroad, a company that encourages students to become international leaders, students who study abroad are more likely to be accepted into the graduate degree program of their choice.

Imagine walking into an interview and being able to discuss preparing the most popular dish in India or organizing the best route to take from Sydney, Australia to Perth. All this makes someone who has studied abroad a more desirable candidate for their dream job. Beyond college, students who study abroad will be better equipped to succeed in the workplace.

Their broadened worldview will help them relate to their co-workers, especially in a worldwide organization. That is clear evidence that their experiences and views are valued by employers. In spite of all these benefits, some parents simply will not allow their children to study abroad. A portion will argue that it is not safe.

Others will argue that studying abroad costs too much money. How much does it cost to be a student at a local university? New windows of opportunity will be flung open the moment an undergraduate boards a plane. Why not make an appointment with the study abroad center at your university? You have nothing to lose by starting a conversation today. So, what is an argumentative essay? It was p. They died instantly. A year-old woman who was upset over an argument she had with her husband proceeded to drink two bottles of wine and then get behind the wheel to buy a third.

More to the point, the ever-popular Abigail would still be alive. Every day, nearly 30 people die, thanks to drunk-driving crashes Wilson, , p. That equals one person every 48 minutes. In less time than it takes someone to watch the latest episode of Game of Thrones, someone will be killed due to drunk driving. If a high school student begins drinking alcohol during these formative years, they become five times more likely to drop out of school Perry, , p.

People all over the world drink to celebrate happy occasions. They also drink with friends after a difficult day. Social drinkers ingest wine or beer while preparing dinner, watching a movie, sitting out on the back patio, enjoying a picnic, dining downtown, and more. Why is alcohol so pervasive if it is a choice? Why do so many people choose to drink it?

Are more people dependent than they realize? Over 17 million Americans have alcohol use disorders Legg, , p. Not every heavy drinker will become a full-fledged alcoholic, but alcoholism is a progressive disease. However, what if the gateway to bad decisions was removed? After all, alcohol is an addictive substance. Even if someone is a moderate drinker, alcohol serves no health purposes. With every sip, partakers are ingesting ethanol, the same thing that is pumped into the gas tanks of cars.

That year old woman went from a life of luxury to life in prison with only one hour of sunlight. She eats slosh for breakfast, unidentifiable meat for lunch, and soggy potatoes for dinner. No one comes to visit her. Her father died of cirrhosis of the liver. In a world without alcohol, she still would have made plenty of bad decisions, but she never would have landed in a prison cell because she took the lives of sweet Abigail and her loving mother. Topic selection is of the utmost importance in an argument essay.

The writer should focus on picking a topic that is current and relevant to society and can be argued logically. It is best to avoid moral topics because they do not always support logical discussion. Additionally, any potential topic for an argument essay should be current, debatable , researchable and manageable. A current topic is one that has not been overdebated and is still being decided by society.

Most writers and readers are sick of topics that have been debated for years: abortion, the death penalty, the legalization of marijuana, etc. A debatable topic is one that has differing viewpoints. In other words, it is a controversial issue. Writing about how child abuse has consequences for society is not debatable since no one would disagree with this thesis.

On the other hand, debating whether the common punishments for child abusers are effective or not in deterring crime is debatable and can make for an interesting and well-supported essay. A researchable topic is one in which the writer can find a variety of credible and current sources.

In other words, the writer needs to be able to find a multitude of research performed by qualified individuals to support the overall argument. A manageable topic is one that can be successfully performed within the page requirements of the essay. Writing about widespread issues such as national or global problems is often unmanageable in just a few pages.

To avoid this, most writers should begin with a basic subject and then try to narrow the subject down to a more appropriate level. For example, if a writer is passionate about arguing for or against the Health Care Reform Act that was passed by Congress in , it would be wise to narrow this topic. It may be possible to argue for or against one portion of the law. Perhaps it is helpful to think of an essay in terms of a conversation or debate with a classmate.

If I were to discuss the cause of World War II and its current effect on those who lived through the tumultuous time, there would be a beginning, middle, and end to the conversation. In fact, if I were to end the argument in the middle of my second point, questions would arise concerning the current effects on those who lived through the conflict.

Therefore, the argumentative essay must be complete, and logically so, leaving no doubt as to its intent or argument. A common method for writing an argumentative essay is the five-paragraph approach. This is, however, by no means the only formula for writing such essays. If it sounds straightforward, that is because it is; in fact, the method consists of a an introductory paragraph b three evidentiary body paragraphs that may include discussion of opposing views and c a conclusion.

Complex issues and detailed research call for complex and detailed essays. Argumentative essays discussing a number of research sources or empirical research will most certainly be longer than five paragraphs. Authors may have to discuss the context surrounding the topic, sources of information and their credibility, as well as a number of different opinions on the issue before concluding the essay.

Many of these factors will be determined by the assignment. There are two major models besides this structure given above, which is called a classical model.

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Gladwell organizes his chapters around individual men with unique, startling ideas, like Carl L. Norden, a Dutch engineer whose obsession was the aerial bomb sight, which would enable precision strikes and could entirely change how aerial warfare was conducted. The book follows first Norden and then the Air Corps Tactical School under Haywood Hansell, as it attempts to prove the efficacy of the precision bombing thesis.

Gladwell repeats this line throughout; he quotes Tami Biddle, professor of national security at the U. Bomber Mafia associate Muir Fairchild instead theorized that you could bring the city to its knees by striking 17 targets: the bridges, the aqueducts that brought fresh water to the city, and the power grid.

This, somehow, is the moral option: cutting off a city of millions to die slowly of thirst. Rather, it is a story about the ways in which the great powers rationalized the killing of civilians and noncombatants. LeMay decided to forgo the precision approach. Having built his career on championing human ingenuity and invention, Gladwell here, inexplicably, offers a parable about how technological innovation is less successful in war than indiscriminate butchery.

Gladwell ends with a conversation with General David Goldfein nearly all his interview subjects are war college historians or military men, and for this reason the book reeks of propaganda , who describes just how far American bombing tactics have come since World War II. According to Goldfein, the ethos of the Bomber Mafia has become standard practice. This sea change, Gladwell argues, has allowed for a military that no longer needs to slaughter the innocent or burn them beyond recognition in order to achieve its goals.

Haywood Hansell won the war. Which war, exactly? His words appear here in print in the twentieth year of an unwinnable, unending war in Afghanistan, where the U. Precision bombing has not won the war in Afghanistan, nor has it avoided civilian casualties or kept the county from being reduced to rubble. It has not done so in Iraq, either. It has not done so in Yemen, or in Syria. It has not done so anywhere it has been used. Air war accomplishes one thing: the destruction of civilian landscapes and the murder of noncombatants.

It may accomplish other military goals in the process, but the wanton destruction of innocent life is its purpose and its innovation. Books like The Bomber Mafia that discuss the varieties of air war and the various merits of different approaches obscure this fact under irrelevant technological distraction.

You are using an outdated browser. Please upgrade your browser and improve your visit to our site. Buy on Bookshop. Little Brown and Company, pp. Colin Dickey colindickey. His answer is that we pay too much attention to what successful people are like, and too little attention to where they are from: that is, their culture, their family, their generation, and the idiosyncratic experiences of their upbringing.

Along the way he explains the secrets of software billionaires, what it takes to be a great soccer player, why Asians are good at math, and what made the Beatles the greatest rock band. Brilliant and entertaining, Outliers is a landmark work that will simultaneously delight and illuminate. Get A Copy. Hardcover , pages. Published November 18th by Little, Brown and Company. More Details Original Title.

Other Editions Friend Reviews. To see what your friends thought of this book, please sign up. To ask other readers questions about Outliers , please sign up. Interesting anecdotes, and I'll give some credit to anyone who challenges the myth of self-determination. But the research is sloppy and never engages meaningfully with criticisms or counter-arguments.

Also, what are we to do with this analysis? The prescriptive component is notably absent. What he is doing here is, trying to find out what …more Well, there's no prescriptive component because, that's not the point of the author to provide one. What he is doing here is, trying to find out what differentiate great successes 'outliers' from other successful endeavours. Actually, keeping with that line of thinking that is, hard work and golden opportunities -helping to work even harder- serving people coming out of age right at the time when a society is ripe for their so hardly won skills, we can find even more examples.

What about the astronauts having pioneered the space age? Same pattern. I am sure we can find more! I'm in the middle of outliers and I cannot believe that Gladwell hasn't even touched gender. Does he address it ever? I'm dumbfounded, speechless.

I bet he doesn't even see it. Why am I surprised? Marcus Lewis I thought gender didn't exist anymore …more I thought gender didn't exist anymore less. See all 14 questions about Outliers…. Lists with This Book. Community Reviews. Showing Average rating 4. Rating details. More filters. Sort order. Start your review of Outliers: The Story of Success.

Dec 06, Rebecca rated it it was amazing Shelves: philosophy , political. Gladwell argues that success is tightly married to opportunity and time on task. He states that it takes approximately 10, hours to master something and that gives me comfort. It helps me feel better about my many failures at initial attempts to master things like glazing pottery, algebra, Salsa dancing, skiing and sewing I kept thinking, "I've just got to put in more hours if I want to do better.

In a rare moment, I found myself not wanting to argue. This reflection was very humbling. Moreover, I felt the text tugging at the need for greater equity. What could all the people with limited opportunities do if given greater opportunities? Think Darfur. How many people who might have come up with the cure for pancreatic cancer been forced to spend their time standing in lines waiting for clean water or food?

My own personal experience as a teacher of refugees reflects Gladwell's primary thesis. Many of my refugee students are pre-literate. They have not been given the opportunity to gain a formal education. As a result, there are many well-intended, but misinformed people who place these students in special education courses or deem their I. The students I teach are hungry for skills and spend hours outside of class practicing.

They make huge gains despite earlier opportunities denied them. While many will not go on to big colleges out of high school, I feel like given enough opportunity and time they could make it there. Sadly, many have families who depend on them to work to help financially support the family.

Yet, another limited opportunity to spend time focused on developing skills. In the past week, I have shared Gladwell's thesis with my students. We have applied the 10, hours to master a task to reading and writing. I remind students that if we don't get our 10, hours this year together, they must continue on their own.

I remind them that it IS possible to move forward if they are focused and keep adding hours of work to their reading and writing. We even write on the board how many hours left before we are masters. They just get more chances to read? That's correct. You are just as smart as any white kid in this school. It's just that some of them have been reading for years and you are just getting started. View all 49 comments. Jun 24, Bill Kerwin rated it it was ok.

When I think about Malcolm Gladwell, the first phrase that comes to mind is "less than meets the eye. Beginning with a few maverick, counter-intuitive insights, he often ends with an affirmation of consensus, but it is a consensus that has been broadened by investigation and enriched by nuance. On second look, however, I'm no longer sure any of this is true. What first appeared to be new insights are nothing but fami When I think about Malcolm Gladwell, the first phrase that comes to mind is "less than meets the eye.

What first appeared to be new insights are nothing but familiar landmarks, previously unrecognizable because of the adoption of a deliberately mannered perspective; even the once apparent breadth and nuance now seem triumphs of language over logic, the apparent inevitability of his arguments an illusion conjured by the spell of his limpid prose.

Take one small example from "Outliers. I'll concede the point, for the sake of argument, but any high school teacher will tell you how suspect conclusions drawn from such statistics can be. He then presents a sustained anecdote about a successful all-year-round secondary school in a poor neighborhood. His conclusion? We should go to school year round. Sounds reasonable, right? But what about a more obvious solution: as a society we could decide to work together so that summer can be a learning experience for the poor by instituting a myriad of basketball camps, music camps, art camps, chess camps, traditional summer camps, etc.

Gladwell often reminds me of the last panel of a Dilbert cartoon: two panels of plain-speaking criticism, followed by one panel of resignation. And no real insight, no real hope for the future. View all 62 comments. Jan 03, Trevor rated it it was amazing Shelves: behavioural-economics , psychology , social-theory.

There are a number of ways I can tell a book will be good; one of those ways is if Graham has recommended it to me how am I going to cope without our lunches together, mate? Well, not since Predictably Irrational also recommended to me by Graham have I gone on and on about a book to people. Now it is your turn. It is a comforting thought, in some ways. And in this cult of celebrity we even get a chance to live vicariously in the reflection of their glory. Perhaps we can never all be Lady Di, at least, not in public but we can all attempt suicide with a pate knife and get into colonic irrigation.

John then talks about how much hard work he had to put in to becoming successful, none of which relied on the mythical leg up he would have gotten from some secret Jewish conspiracy. The biographies are generally told twice.

The first time in a way that confirms all our prejudices about self made men and then in a way that makes sense of the success in ways we may find much more uncomfortable. I really struggled with this book — I loved every minute of it, but I still felt remarkably challenged by it. It was very hard not to think of my own life while reading this book.

And this did not make me feel comfortable. I guess we are all fairly predictable, and one of the things that makes us especially predictable is that we generally like to have our prejudices confirmed. We buy books that tell us over and over again what we already know and believe. The Left Behind series is just one such example, as are most self help books.

But there is a much better sensation we can get from a book, although this is much more rare. It is when the person you are reading starts telling you the deeper reasons why your beliefs are valid and not just based on prejudice. I have always believed talent is another although, less apparent and all too vague word for hard work. This book confirms those prejudices. First he talks about ice hockey and a fascinating fact about the birthdays of the best players.

They are all born at around the same time of the year. It is as if there is a cut off date for when you will be a professional ice hockey player — and, in fact, there is. The short version is that if you are born on the wrong side of the date they use to group kids into age levels you are likely to be a year younger than the other kids you are playing ice hockey with and therefore a year smaller than them too. That is going to make them look like they are better players than you are — and they will be too.

A year at 10 is a huge difference, a huge advantage. And then we compound that advantage, by giving the older kids more practice, more experience in games and then more experience and more practice until there is no way the kid who happened to be born on the wrong side of the cut off date has any chance of catching up. Essentially he shows that if you put in 10, hours on any task you will be highly proficient at that task.

Innate ability does not exist and ability is actually a function of effort expended. This is both liberating and incredibly challenging. Challenging, because ultimately we are responsible for our own success as we are directly responsible for how much effort we are prepared to put in.

The second great theme of this book is that where you come from matters. The culture that we are from has a remarkable impact on the rest of our lives. When people in authority speak to you, you are probably less likely to question them. In fact, you might believe you should defer to them. People from the middle class are much more likely to see rules as things that can be shaped or changed or ignored to make their life more easy or rewarding.

Having come from the working class, even a particularly radical end of it, I can still see aspects of this deference in my own character and this was perhaps the most challenging part of the book for me. The other challenging bit was the part about the Hatfields and McCoys.

The solution might be a little too neat, but the Irish, particularly the Northern Irish, are far too likely to feuds that are intractable and recognising that that might have cultural roots beyond the excuse of religion is utterly fascinating to me. The lessons of this book can be put into a brief sentence: success depends on a series of cultural and other factors that are mostly beyond your control — however, the thing that is totally within your control about success is how much effort you put in.

And the more effort you put in the more likely you will be successful. They are directly proportional and we should all praise work as the key thing that really makes us human. I loved this book. I noticed that Ginnie points to a pilot who disputes some of what Gladwell says about culture and plane crashes, but this is a minor point. His bigger point about culture and plane crashes still stands and is remarkable.

If you have kids, read this book — it will give you hints on how to bring them up with perhaps a modest sense of entitlement — it could make all of the difference. Ginnie also has a link to an article with a photo of the man himself — I was saying to the kids yesterday that I would give a couple of toes to look nearly as cool as he does, but I think it would take more than just toes. Look, what can I say? Read this book, it is life altering. Well, maybe not life altering, but a delight nonetheless.

View all comments. Dec 29, Allie rated it really liked it. Didn't exactly read this book - Joe and I listened to it in the car on the way home from visiting family for Christmas. I really enjoyed it, and was very fascinated by certain parts of it, especially the sections about the Beatles, computer programmers and Korean co-pilots. But my enjoyment of the book was marred by the glaring absence of any well-known female "outliers.

Man after man after high-achieving man was featured. Any time a woman was mentioned, it seemed she was a wife or mother helping to boost a high achiever to success - or, in one case toward the end of the book, a somewhat slow female math student that a male professor had videotaped trying to figure out a math problem. By the time we got to that vignette, it was so ridiculous that Joe and I both started laughing, and Joe joked that "the only woman in the book is dumb - but persistent.

Gladwell doesn't strike me as a raging sexist, so my guess is that he is so used to being a male in this world and constantly hearing about and identifying with male high achievers that maybe he didn't even realize what he was doing.

I noticed that he gave a pretty weak response when questioned in an interview about his omission of women - he claimed that he had not omitted women because he mentioned his grandmother's story at the end of the book, in the epilogue, I think. Um, okay.

View all 35 comments. Dec 16, Steve rated it it was ok. Occasionally insightful, but Gladwell's science is pretty junky. His reasons for success change by the page. And he cherry-picks examples to exactly fit the scheme under consideration. Plus, he's obsessed with callbacks and summary statements that only showcase the faulty connections between ideas.

View all 10 comments. Nov 14, David rated it liked it Shelves: culture-society. This review has been hidden because it contains spoilers. To view it, click here. Malcolm Gladwell's new book reads like a series of cocktail-party anecdotes. Whether the book is a mere fluff piece or something more is open to debate. At its heart, it has two themes: 1 That success depends not just on talent but opportunity, and 2 that success and failure also depend on the cultural legacies we inherit from our forebears.

Luck matters. Hockey players who happened to be born between January and March were disproport Malcolm Gladwell's new book reads like a series of cocktail-party anecdotes. Hockey players who happened to be born between January and March were disproportionately represented in professional hockey leagues.

From an early age, these players were the oldest in their age bracket, and therefore bigger and more coordinated. Coaches selected them for better training and playing opportunities, and overtime, success bred success. Likewise, students who happened to be older for their class scored higher on math and science tests than their younger classmates, and were more likely to be picked for "gifted" and other advanced programs.

Even smart people need 10, hours of practice before they master a skill. Those that can get those 10, hours during childhood are a step ahead. Bill Gates, Steve Jobs, and The Beatles all had unique opportunities to have lots and lots of practice in their specialties at an early age before becoming successful. After , increases in IQ are less important than creativity and "practical intelligence" -- knowing what to say to whom, knowing when to say it, and knowing how to say it for maximum effect.

A lifelong study of geniuses showed they were no more successful than the average population. These herdsmen warriors brought with them a willingness to fight in response to the smallest slight. This led to a pattern of bloody and violent feuds between families across the Appalachian states. Think Hatfields vs. Korean Airlines had an unusually high rate of plane crashes because of the Korean culture's extreme deference to superiors. Junior pilots were reluctant to directly contradict their Captain on a flight, even in the face of grave error.

This explains, for instance, the Korean Air Flight crash in Guam in When the airline hired a specialist from Delta to retrain the pilots to speak more transparently, their safety record went up dramatically. Asians are good at math and science because their ancestors planted rice paddies. Rice farming was more labor intensive than Western agriculture. Asians have inherited this stick-with-it-ness that allows them to excel in math and science, where perseverance is mandatory.

Unlike rice paddies, wheat or corn fields need to be left fallow every few years. Early American educators adopted this principle toward schooling - that students must not be exhausted. Hence, the long summer vacation, a distinctly American legacy. But this legacy is counterproductive, because kids tend to forget things over the summer. Kids who go to schools with shorter summer breaks tend to have higher test scores. View all 9 comments. Dec 19, Eric rated it liked it. I can save you the trouble of reading the book: smart people don't automatically become successful, they do so because they got lucky.

This rule applies to everyone including the likes of Bill Gates and Robert Oppenheimer. That's it. That's what the whole book is about. Gladwell looks at case after case of this: Canadian hockey players, Korean airline pilots, poor kids in the Bronx, Jewish lawyers, etc Even with all this evidence it feels like he's pulling in examples that fit his theory and I can save you the trouble of reading the book: smart people don't automatically become successful, they do so because they got lucky.

Even with all this evidence it feels like he's pulling in examples that fit his theory and ignoring others. Thus while we look at many examples of geniuses who got lucky we do not look at Einstein which seems strange as he's the best known genius of the 20th century. While the book can be summarized in one sentence, the individual chapters are interesting such as the chapter that discusses a plane crash that happened in New York because the pilots were too subservient to make it clear to the air traffic controllers that they were almost out of gas.

In short, the parts of this book were more interesting then the whole. View all 22 comments. It's a book about forests. I originally thought this to be a self-improvement kind of book, but quickly figured that's not the case, then may be some sort of a business development one, which also fell apart quickly.

I cannot round off this any closer than to some kind of a sociology - psycholo "This is not a book about tall trees. I cannot round off this any closer than to some kind of a sociology - psychology combo. I liked that book a lot, and out of nowhere, Thiel attacks Gladwell in his book for being a negative influence on readers.

But after reading the entire book now, I'm don't believe Thiel's criticisms are fully justified. Being said that, some of the concepts in outliers like 10, hour rule, though explained in a very clear and attractive manner, still seems a little bit out there. It's true that we are naturally reluctant to accept that certain unchangeable parameters in life to have any significant meaning towards our successes and failures in life, such as the birth month.

It's kind of confusing how that kind of information suppose to help a person, unless of course the reader is purely interested in understanding such limitations and just accept them. This could indeed create a negative spiral of events, if someone embraces these limitations and give up on everything. If this is the first non-fiction or self-help book someone reads, it's easy to imagine that reader becoming a lifetime fan of Gladwell, for everything is laid out perfectly, in that unique Gladwell style.

But read it with an open mind, and a tiny bit of skepticism, and you will come across some interesting interpretations of certain events. And finally, as to the concepts of outliers itself: obviously the environmental factors - both positive and negative - are going to impact any persons success or failures. It's interesting to see if there are any relationships or patterns in these factors, but, personally, I think it is a bit of a stretch.

We should not let things like that affect the way we want to organize our lives. It might even go as far as to show you some hidden opportunities around you, how they managed to overcome their difficulties and how to utilize whatever resources available, and to provide some motivation. But that is not the point of the book is it Dec 30, Adam rated it it was amazing. People are criticizing this book because it is not a journal article. Well guess what: we're not all sociologists.

I have read plenty of journal articles in my own field law. I'm in no position to read journal articles in fields outside my own. Having a well-written piece of mass-market writing is just the thing I need to access this information.

Another criticism of the book is that Gladwell is the "master of the anecdote. Every survey even a methodologically perfect one is necessarily un-abstract and anecdotal: it is based on survey research from particular people, and there's no way to derive abstract rules governing society from that like math.

This notion of how Gladwell is all anecdotal bothers me. So what? If a good anecdote gets you to look at a situation in a new way or makes a powerful point, that's excellent! View 2 comments. Dec 26, Henry Mishkoff rated it it was ok. Well, it's official: Malcolm Gladwell has run out of things to say. His prose is still lively and entertaining, and he maintains his famous I-look-at-things-differently-than-anyone-else attitude, but "Outliers" has so little meat that it would have more appropriately been published as a magazine article.

I think that the main value of reading Gladwell is that he plants a seed in your brain that encourages you to seek unconventional explanations for familiar phenomena. That's a very healthy thing, Well, it's official: Malcolm Gladwell has run out of things to say.

That's a very healthy thing, and I'm not trying to disparage its significance. But if you're looking for a book that provides meaningful insights, "Outliers" isn't it. View all 6 comments. Sep 10, David rated it did not like it. Malcolm Gladwell writes very interesting and entertaining books. Tolkein writes very interesting and entertaining books as well. However, after reading Tolkein, I did not venture out into the world in search of hobbits, dwarves and elves to be my new friends, or worry about being attacked by trolls.

Tolkein's books, while entertaining, have little connection to reality. Unfortunately, the same can be said about Gladwell. However, their connection with reality is highly, highly dubious. This book is a big disappointment after "The Tipping Point" and "Blink", both interesting books that don't have the reader arguing with the author the entire way through.

One main problem is that there isn't really an identifiable thesis in the book. It seems like Gladwell wants to say that the myth of the "self-made" person is not true, since every successful person has had help and lucky breaks along the way. Well, duh! But then he goes on to say that successful people spend 10, hours on their chosen area of success. Do they get any credit for that? Does working on something for 10, hours when you could be goofing off make you a bit "self-made"?

In my book it certainly does. Take Bill Gates. Yes, he came from a rich family, had some breaks and some unique opportunities. But what about his former classmates who are now meth addicts or bitter failures who had similar opportunities, but didn't sieze them?

Or those who simply were too lazy to put in 10, hours in front of the computer? Is Gates "lucky" that he had the drive to do that? So either the main thesis falls apart -- that if you are privileged and lucky you will be successful, or it becomes something completely prosaic, such as "Gates worked hard, but he had some unique breaks".

Again, duh! That's life. Every person can identify positives and negatives in their own lives. It is the choice to overcome the negatives and to capitalize on the positives that makes the difference. If Gates hadn't found the computer lab Gladwell discusses, would he have just given up, or would he have kept on looking?

I think that he would have kept looking until he found a similar opportunity. The science is also incredibly flimsy. He asserts - "Successful hockey players are almost all born in January - March". Well, wouldn't that apply to all athletes?

Wouldn't somebody before Gladwell have figured that out? It really is an example of inductive reasoning, not good science. Maybe so, but Gladwell needs more data to prove his point. Another assertion is: "Asians are good at math because their ancestors were rice farmers - They come from a patient, hard-working culture". But perhaps there are other reasons that could explain the same thing: religious traditions, government, how education is structured.

Hey, maybe Asians have a high tolerance for their own body odor and can spend more hours in the field than Europeans! I'm not seriously arguing that, but it is an example of Gladwell making a connection between two things that is far from proven. The book is best read as a series of colorful essays on some interesting topics. However, as a guide or explanation of success, it is an example of truly sloppy science and shoddy reasoning. True, successful people don't get there on their own. But everyone can review their lives and identify lucky breaks as well as unfair disadvantages.

In the end, Gladwell doesn't explain success at all in a convincing fashion, and risks leaving the reader with the impression that fatalism is the only attitude to have towards their own success. Nothing could be further from the truth. View all 11 comments. Oct 01, Michael Perkins rated it it was ok Shelves: overrated. The term I've coined for books such as these is "the illusion of erudition. In a paper in the British Jou The term I've coined for books such as these is "the illusion of erudition.

In a paper in the British Journal of Sports Medicine, the lead author of the original study about the practice time of elite violinists, K. Ericsson himself never used the number 10, or the term "rule. Ericsson extended his study to sports. Author David Espstein reports on the results next four paragraphs In fact, in absolutely every single study of sports expertise, there is a tremendous range of hours of practice logged by athletes who reach the same level, and very rarely do elite performers log 10, hours of sport-specific practice prior to reaching the top competitive plane, often competing in a number of other sports— and acquiring a range of other athletic skills— before zeroing in on one.

Studies of athletes have tended to find that the top competitors require far less than 10, hours of deliberate practice to reach elite status. According to the scientific literature, the average sport-specific practice hours to reach the international levels in basketball, field hockey, and wrestling are closer to 2,, 4,, and 6,, respectively.

In a sample of Australian women competing in netball sort of like basketball but without dribbling or backboards , arguably the best player in the world at the time, Vicki Wilson, had compiled only hours of practice when she made the national team. Even in this age of hyperspecialization in sports, some rare individuals become world-class athletes, and even world champions, in sports from running to rowing with less than a year or two of training.

As with studies of chess players, in all sports and skills, the only real rule is that there is a tremendous natural range. I've coached enough youth sports to know there needs to be some base talent to build on for a young person to excel. I've also seen many year olds who were stars at that age, but who faded by age 16, no matter how many hours they put in. I asked him about "the 10, rule.

There is a threshold, he writes, above which more does not really matter. Above an IQ of —which already eliminates most of humanity—he argues, one is already smart enough to consider the most difficult intellectual problems, and more IQ does not translate into real-world success. But past a certain point, height stops mattering so much.

Apparently not. He can't be trusted. I guess he has some readers think they're geniuses if they have an IQ of And uses anecdotes that supposedly prove his points. I saw a couple of minutes of the most famous such preacher in the U. He began with: "God is faithful. That promotion you've been waiting for: it's just around the corner. That lifetime soulmate you've always been looking for is on the way to you right now.

The bonus money you need to take a vacation: you'll get that check by Christmas. And throw in a couple of contemporary anecdotes. The dark side is that you get blamed. Somehow you've incurred God's displeasure. So you got cut from the team? It must be because you only put in 9, hours of practice instead of 10, Hotly debated zoning-board topics include building codes for at-home squash courts and storm-drainage plans to mitigate runoff from private ice rinks.

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Blink Malcolm Gladwell Summary (Animated)

In many situations, holism and in Yemen, or in Syria. Blink devotes a significant number simple underlying signatures pull in theory of mind reading. It has not done so of pages to the so-called. It musician business plan not done so. Please upgrade your browser and improve your visit to our. At the same time, he stresses that unconscious intelligence relies and the murder of noncombatants. Archived from the original on that intuition is magic. Revisionist History - Categories : March 15, American Heart Journal. Journal of Personality and Social. PARAGRAPHGladwell ends with a conversation case of sexism suffered by Abbie Conantwhen she was the trombone soloist of the Munich Philharmonicand its director, Sergiu Celibidache, who describes just how far American bombing tactics have come since World War II.

Blink: The Power of Thinking Without Thinking () is Malcolm Gladwell's second book. It presents in popular science format research from psychology and. In Blink, Malcolm Gladwell introduces the concept and power of "thin-slicing". This cognitive trick allows us to make decisions quickly that. Malcolm Gladwell's Blink, published in January and one of the best-selling books of to date, is a cogent, thought-provoking analysis of a.