Permissions Icon Permissions. Article PDF first page preview. Issue Section:. You do not currently have access to this article. Download all slides. Sign in Don't already have an Oxford Academic account? You could not be signed in. Sign In Forgot password? Don't have an account? Organization of American Historians members Sign in via society site. Sign in via your Institution Sign in. Purchase Subscription prices and ordering Buy the complete issue.
Volume 16, Issue 1 - 24 Hours access. This article is also available for rental through DeepDyve. View Metrics. Email alerts Article activity alert. New issue alert. Receive exclusive offers and updates from Oxford Academic. Citing articles via Google Scholar. The Long History of American Slavery. Cahokia, the Great City. By the end of some 3 million children had abandoned school. Thousands of schools had closed or were operating on reduced hours. At least , children took to the roads on their own.
August Source Squatter camp, California, November Source During the Great Depression, unemployment was high. Many employers tried to get as much work as possible from their employees for the lowest possible wage. Workers were upset with the speedup of assembly lines, working conditions and the lack of job security. Seeking strength in unity, they formed unions.
Automobile workers organized the U. United Automobile Workers of America in General Motors would not recognize the U. Hearing rumors that G. The sit-down was an effective way to strike. When workers walked off the job and picketed a plant, management could bring in new workers to break the strike. If the workers stayed in the plant, management could not replace them with other workers.
Source Strikers guarding window entrance to Fisher body plant number three. Flint, Michigan, Jan. Photographer: Sheldon Dick. Source Toward Los Angeles, California. Perhaps 2. Typical story: fifteen years ago they owned farms in Oklahoma. Lost them through foreclosure when cotton prices fell after the war.
Became tenants and sharecroppers. With the drought and dust they came West, Never before left the county where they were born. Now although in California over a year they haven't been continuously resident in any single county long enough to become a legal resident. Reason: migratory agricultural laborers. March Source Drought refugees near Holtville, California. Photographer: Dorothea lange. Source Lincoln Brigade Ambulance Corps. The Spanish Civil War was the great international cause of the s.
Aided by Hitler and Mussolini, the Spansih military led a revolt against the progressive elected government. About 3, Americans volunteered to fight on behlaf of the Spanish Republic. Press photo. December Photographer: Russell Lee. Tattered communities of the homeless coalesced in and around every major city in the country.
Memphis, Tennessee. June Source Squatter makes coffee in kitchen at his home in abandoned warehouse, Caruthersville, Missouri. Source Members of the picket line at King Farm strike. Morrisville, Pennsylvania. Photographer: John Vachon. In contrast to a frequently racist society, several unions were militantly integrationist. Source Power farming displaces tenants. Texas panhandle, House was built of scrap material in vacant lot in Mexican section of San Antonio, Texas.
Source Mexican woman arranging things in her shack home. San Antonio, Texas. Source Relief line waiting for commodities, San Antonio, Texas. Source Man in hobo jungle killing turtle to make soup, Minneapolis, Minnesota. Source Selling apples, Jacksonville, Texas. October, Many tried apple-selling to avoid the shame of panhandling.
In New York City, there were over 5, apple sellers on the street. Source Young boys waiting in kitchen of city mission for soup which is given out nightly. Dubuque, Iowa. April For millions, soup kitchens offered the only food they would eat. Source Durham, North Carolina, May Photographer: Jack Delano. Source Yabucoa, Puerto Rico. Strikers near the sugar mill. In the mill village at the sugar mill. Bud Fields and his family. Squatter's Camp, Route 70, Arkansas, October, Photographer: Ben Shahn Source.
Philipinos cutting lettuce, Salinas, California, Roadside stand near Birmingham, Alabama, Farmer and sons, dust storm, Cimarron County, Oklahoma, Migrant pea pickers camp in the rain. In one of the largest pea camps in California. The photograph that has become known as "Migrant Mother" is one of a series of photographs that Dorothea Lange made in February or March of in Nipomo, California.
Dorothea Lange's "Migrant Mother," destitute in a pea picker's camp, because of the failure of the early pea crop. Freight car converted into house in "Little Oklahoma," California. Photographer: Dorothea Lange Source. Gellert, Hugo, Demonstration of unemployed, Columbus, Kansas. A sharecropper's yard, Hale County, Alabama, Summer Photographer: Walker Evans Source.
Porch of a sharecropper's cabin, Hale County, Alabama, Summer Part of an impoverished family of nine on a New Mexico highway. Squatter camp, California, November During the Great Depression, unemployment was high.
On second look it was more than just a love story. It became a holy scripture I would follow for the next few years. Austen had written Elizabeth as a woman with dimension, not an object of perfection but a woman who had her faults as well as some of the most virtuous qualities.
She was outspoken but not rude, intelligent but prideful, but most of all she was dynamic—she was what a woman should be. I had nothing but admiration for the complex lead that Austen had created as well as the role model who also helped me unfold some great universal truths. The move to Texas was one of the hardest transitions in my life as I was greeted with a culture shock and had to reinvent myself.
In California my peers and I had shared the same views. We were all so liberal which at the time felt like a blessing, but when I got to Texas it seemed as though everywhere I went my ideas were challenged. Did I mess up? Was I wrong about all republicans being bad? That night my heart was palpitating with fear that I had been wrong. Perhaps I had been too quick to judge as Elizabeth had and perhaps I should reexamine my preconceived notions of political parties.
This sense of clarity I received, was due in part to Pride and Prejudice because even though it did not provide me with the answers to my questions, it had given me a sense of self awareness. After that I became obsessed with reading, falling into my old habits of staying up late to read the last chapter, staying in to read at lunch, and going to the library every weekend. I am forever grateful to Pride and Prejudice for reigniting the passion for reading I had lost in middle school.
Books have inspired me unlike anything in school not just Pride and Prejudice which helped me make better decisions in my own life but so many other books that have challenged my ideas on morality, society and the world: Slaughterhouse-Five , The Great Gatsby , Life of Pi , Widow Basquiat , A Clockwork Orange, and more than I can list. I should have thrived in high school but with the exception of a few classes, I rarely felt like I was learning; the only place to do that for me were in pages and pages of literature.
Throughout my high school career we were stuck on these desks, asked to raise our hands to speak, told what was right from wrong, all around a very uninspiring environment. I had no idea how a classroom could be thought-provoking and truly educational until I went to the Summer Academy at St. In the seminars I felt an energy of pure passion, every single person shared this love for learning that I had never experienced before.
I had never been in a classroom where we were so freely allowed to ask questions. I realized that was what learning should be and that is how I want to learn. I am drawn to St. I especially look forward to the different perspectives and the debates that will come from having an entire community bound together by the richness of the program.
The novel raises questions, such as: What defines a person? How does society affect what a person becomes? This novel tries to answer these questions, thus giving it significance to me. The breadth of its scope, covering the history of Eastern Europe, morals, ideology, faith, and the relationship between society and the self, makes it great.
The novel focuses on ways the Soviet regime exerted its power on its people. Coming from a post-Soviet country still struggling with its past, where some adore past times while others despise them, I am interested in how the regime worked to indoctrinate people. Although the novel is not a history book, its presentation of characters helps to crystallize the essence of what the Soviet Union looked like.
The fact of it being a literary work has made it easier for me to comprehend and visualize the historical period which was so devastating to my country. The novel helped me understand that the harder an ideology is pushed on people, the harder they will rebel in indirect ways. For example, although the Soviet regime placed much focus on the formation of equality and the destruction of the bourgeoisie, the conditions which followed such acts made people more prone to seek inequality and personal benefit.
The constant fear turned people into animals willing to do anything to survive. The book paints a gruesomely comical picture. For fear of being next to disappear or jealousy because someone lives a tiny bit better than you, espionage and treason become a normal part of life. People in high-ranking positions lived Western lives, as seen by the image of Margarita and her mysterious husband who works for the government.
My grandfather was a celebrated actor in the USSR. My father often tells stories about how he, my uncles, and my grandparents spent their holidays in special resorts with limited access. The description of art under the regime is one of my favorite aspects of the novel. Art is used as a propaganda tool, and the state controls art through bribery.
It is ironic to see artists, whose independence is essential for the creative process, being manipulated by the state through petty materialistic entitlements. Artists here worry more about the size of summer house they will receive for their vacation than their work.
When the value of their work is questioned, they affirm their lack of talent; yet their social position is too valuable to give up, as reflected in the thoughts of the poet Riuchin. When a poet who has met the devil calls Riuchin a talentless artist, he accepts the claim and inwardly agrees that he does not believe in his writing.
Yet he chooses to ignore the thought. He understands that the society needs artists like him. Mediocrity is appreciated since it does not question the status quo. Was my grandfather like Riuchin? I have understood that he did not belong to that mediocrity. He cared more about art than he did about his relative wealth or fame. He chose art as a means to remain free when his environment sought to constrain him. My grandfather proved to be resilient against attempts to corrupt him.
That is what I admire about him most. His persistent belief in art allowed him to remain free in an oppressive state. Moreover, he contributed much towards the achievement of Lithuanian independence in The characters Master and Margarita show this through their choice to leave Moscow society. The novel also addresses conformism and its effects on society.
The conformism in the novel is blindly following government orders, not questioning the comical levels of commodity deficits, the lack of freedom of speech, and restrictions on art. The quote from the introduction shows an even bigger tragedy. And nobody wants to stand out. No questions are asked. This harsh reality that I saw in the novel impressed me. It has made me notice links between the story and my generation.
I live in a newly independent society that still has remnants of the old, Soviet conformism, and, instead of freeing itself, it has begun to bury itself in it. The drive to conform to a standard so as to avoid standing out has become more and more apparent. The Master and Margarita displays such behavior. However, the society depicted in the novel accepts such conformism to urvive, whereas the young generation can take individual freedom for granted.
Why is conformism a threat? It impedes creativity and critical thinking, but these are essential in raising questions and seeing beyond the obvious. Instead, my peers choose to follow similar paths of education seeing a narrow degree as superior to a broader one and career only highly paid. At an early age they are asked to choose their path for life.
I see no point in that. Avoiding conformism and pre-set structures lets people see the world in different colors and leads to self-discovery. This novel is a clear reminder that people have potential and must not choose an easy path in life. Each individual must pave their own way to achieve true happiness. Prior to reading the novel, I viewed individualism as an act of rebellion with little to no effect on the development of personality. My father is a prime example of an individualist, and, for some time, I saw him as an outsider who found many ways to be critical of his environment.
Moreover, our relationship has always been strained. Having read the novel I have learned to appreciate individualism as a philosophy. The character of Master, a misunderstood writer of his time, reflects in detail the value of being independent of societal views. Self-confidence is something I have struggled very long and hard with. I used to worry that I would stand out—especially in school. The views of my society are rather one dimensional towards being different.
It means being inferior. When reflecting that becoming part of this society would lead me to self-hatred, I have come to see Master as an example. The hardship he undergoes and the courage he portrays afterwards have inspired me to embrace who I am. This has also come from my father. He has always encouraged me to have my own personal outlook and opinion. I think he believes that conformity undermines intellectual potential—an opinion I now strongly agree with. Moreover, he has taught me to stand my ground and be perceptive.
The critical viewpoint I have grown into has trained me not to take things for granted and to be inquisitive. So, in a way, The Master and Margarita has helped me to understand my father and appreciate him as an outsider, an individualist.
I have also become an individualist who tries to defy the conformism around him. Not only do the literary devices make it a wonder to read, but the way it discusses eternal human problems makes it a great book. It also addresses the relationship between individuals and their community and time. It embraces individualism and faith as compasses to accomplishment. The third aspect—that of conformism—connects the novel with today and calls on the reader to think and reflect more deeply, to search for a unique identity.
The experience of reading the story has taught me that raising questions and finding answers should be an indefinite, life-long process. This epic is not only a great book—it is the great book of Poland, as important and symbolic as the Vistula River that flows from the Polish mountains to the Baltic sea. Where American students must study the U. Constitution, Poles are required to memorize sections of Pan Tadeusz, especially those which are thought to embody the core of what it means to be Polish.
Its author, Adam Mickiewicz, is considered something of a literary god, somewhere between Dante and Shakespeare. I first began reading Pan Tadeusz when I was thirteen. Because I am a homeschooler living in the United States, there was no set requirement to read it, so my decision to do so was entirely my own—although I admit that my Polish father may have egged me on just a little.
And perhaps because it was my decision to read this epic, my reaction to it was stronger than it otherwise would have been. Until then, being Polish meant little more to me than having a second passport, wearing a traditional dress on holidays, and having a passel of cousins across the ocean.
Being Polish was a part of me, but not something I paid much attention to. The poem nostalgically recalls a glorious time when Poland spanned from Lithuania to Hungary to western Russia. Although war is the frame, the story does not dwell on the losses suffered, choosing instead to celebrate a beloved way of life left behind. The lyrical lines paint beautiful scenes of the landed gentry and their traditions: the careful brewing of coffee by the kawiarka, the servant whose job it was to prepare the coffee, the traditional ritual of picking mushrooms in the forest, and outings in the idyllic countryside.
But these details resonated with me, as well. For me, Pan Tadeusz redefined and cemented what it meant to be Polish. I think I can recite the opening more readily than I can the Pledge of Allegiance:. Litwo, Ojczyzno moja! My homeland!
You are health alone. Today I see and tell anew Your lovely beauty, as I long for you. In reading Pan Tadeusz , I realized that this was my heritage. My family lived in the northern region, bordering Lithuania. As gentry, they would have lived a life much like that described in Pan Tadeusz. The Napoleonic wars are part of my history, as are the partitioning of Poland in the eighteenth, nineteenth, and again in the twentieth century. As long as we have Pan Tadeusz , there will be a little bit of Poland on every shelf that has a copy.
Gazing at the world with wide-eyed wonderment, I would ask all the questions I had, not knowing the difference between what was supposedly pertinent or irrelevant. My philosophical ramblings would range from the extremely silly to the fiercely profound. By the time high school rolled around, that girl was nowhere to be found.
I would uncomprehendingly coast through my classes, molding my knowledge to fit the next quiz and promptly forgetting it afterwards. The book explored the seemingly ludicrous claim that modern Western science had somehow l ead to the same conclusions as ancient Eastern mysticism. As many other scientists undoubtedly had when the celebrated book was first published, I approached it with much skepticism.
For years, scientists have conceived of atoms, or indeed, elementary particles as discrete pockets of matter. But modern science contradicts these ideas of classical mechanics: an electron is conceived of as a wave-particle duality, with a tendency to exist in certain areas. Accordingly, physicist H. It is, in essence, a set of relationships that reach outward to other things.
In The Tao of Physics , Capra relates this inseparable quality of elementary particles to the ideas of the limitations of logic and unity in Eastern mysticism. According to the Hindu concept of Maya, reality as the way we perceive it is an illusion, just as the idea of discrete particles is an illusion.
In Buddhist koans , one is forced to realize the limitations of rational thought and language as a seemingly paradoxical riddle that reveals an absolute meaning unconveyed by words and unattainable by logic, just like the duality of the wave-particle electron.
As Capra notices in the preface to the 30th edition of his book, his realization plays a fundamental role in ecology: we are all part of an interconnected system, inseparable from our surroundings and each other. Capra chose a line of inquiry that was highly unconventional, but from his work resulted a revolutionary new lens with which to view both religion and science.
The brilliance of this book lies in its unabashed pursuit of an idea, no matter what other leading figures of science may have had to say about it. Capra had the courage to question the ideas we dismiss everyday, and out of this fearless inquiry, he fundamentally changed our understanding of science.
For me, the book lead to another profound realization: if I was inseparable from my surroundings, it followed that I had an impact on my environment. I was powerful, and my actions mattered. The Tao of Physics woke me up. I began to question the ideas behind my everyday actions regardless of whether other people thought this was a relevant line of inquiry or not.
When I advocated for a climate resolution in my school and in my city, I questioned the ideal of open-mindedness, a term that my AP Environmental Science teacher seemed to take for granted until I compelled him to think about what it means and what it entails. Out of this confusion and curiosity, my AP Research paper on the nature of open-mindedness as an intellectual virtue in epistemology emerged. So, how did The Tao of Physics change how I perceive the world?
It gave me the courage to pursue my questions, think deeply about all the ideas we take for granted, and act to change the world. I will continue to do so for the rest of my life. As I look at it now, the paint has flaked away, leaving ominous black splotches along the spine.
I hope this book, in all its fairy-tale grotesquery, reforms your view and experience of literature in the way it did for me. I spent three days doing nothing but reading. It was late December and the snow was gently falling outside. I sat in an armchair in front of a wood fire with a cup of tea and read. I read for hours until my skin stung, my neck stiffened and my head ached.
At night, I would draw myself a bath and lay in it until the water went cold and read. I would fall asleep while I read. Most distinctly I remember running to the bathroom, chapter after chapter, to throw up. I read Lolita obsessively. It was all at once a beautiful and harrowing experience.
To clarify, my response was not a result of any past trauma. My life has been exceptionally pleasant. My visceral reaction to Lolita remains a mystery to me. The words manifested in my body, and remain there today. Whenever I pick up the book, I shake. If you flip through the book now, you can see the pages I gripped so tightly that they tore.
After reading Lolita , my brother and I spent the following days dissecting every minute detail, trying to find some kind of understanding of Lolita. We searched together for insight, sat up late after dinner arguing about whether or not Humbert loved Dolores, and what the final meeting between Humbert and Dolores meant.
My experience of Lolita is intrinsically connected to the discussions I had with my brother. Lolita inspired in me a fervent hunger for discussion of truth. My initial impression was that the truth of Lolita , its ugliness, was hidden behind its beautiful prose.
It uses flowery words of love and affection to trick the reader into believing in some kind of horrid love story. I wanted to brush off the proselike dust off an old book. I had thought that the truth was beneath this, like a mystery waiting to be solved.
So, I though, it must have been possible for me. However, this is not at all true. Lolita is not a tale of horror in spite of its beauty, it is a tale of horror because of its beauty. We had really seen nothing. And I catch myself thinking today that our long journey had only defiled with a sinuous trail of slime the lovely, trustful, dreamy, enormous country, that, by then, in retrospect, was no more than a collection of dog-eared maps, ruined tour books, old tires and her sobs in the night—every night, every night—the moment I feigned sleep.
I saw her face in the sky, strangely distinct, as if it emitted a faint radiance of its own. So, must all beauty be false and can truth only come ugly? Or is there even truer beauty in truth? But does that validate the beauty of a lie? Then, how does one interpret morality in relation to beauty? Is there any meaning to one without the other? They weigh so heavily on each other that it is impossible for them to existence independently.
It is impossible to finish reading Lolita. It is a book of perpetual discussion, conversation, and questioning. Lolita is not a book to be solved. A book will occupy my thoughts and conversation for a period of time but Lolita awakened a violent response- this is what I have to do, for the rest of my life.
I have to analyze great literature and live in its questioning. My experience with Lolita informed my entire way of thinking. It taught me that there is no ending to a conversation, and no meaning without conversation. They are gasps of continually renewed surprise.
I expect to read the novel many more times. And I am running out of clean white space. It is that surprise that I can see in the community at St. I imagine life there will be four years of running out of clean white space. Growing up, I spent hours on end in the attic of our little house—It held hundreds of books, saved by my family for generations. I read it all. I was in kindergarten.
I literally judged this book by its cover. Red, leather bound, gold embossed. After I had returned the book to the public library, I was still reciting The Raven by memory. Even then, I deeply appreciated that an emotion could be found in a strange combination of words.
I understood that books, like people, carry complex emotions. I also understood that this was not a story about a raven. I did not stop at The Raven. My peers neglected the reading, doing only what they had to do to maintain decent grades. I came to class having read the story and enjoyed it. Unlike my classmates, I see books as worlds I can get lost in. They saw a story about a cockroach. I saw a statement about our significance in the world. According to Kafka, we have none. I can already see it—myself, sitting in classrooms where everyone wants to be there—where I am not being measured, rated, scored, and I can learn through communicating, not testing.
Where Johnnies not only question my truths, but theirs too. My parents were always open about their intercultural moral beliefs and never censored discussions. I was raised bilingual. My father spoke only Arabic, and my mother only English. To this day, I imagine that my brain is made up of two halves. I learned a kind of diplomacy from having to interpret their different perspectives.
Having attended St. This unconventional mindset made me the scholar I am today. I am a reader because I am a writer, not the other way around. Index cards, store receipts, and any other paper I can find, covered in notes I took, stick out of the tops of my books. This is my way of enjoying books. I dream of a place where everyone enjoys books differently. There is greatness to be found in every book, but these are some of the writers that challenged what I thought to be true and opened the door to moral questions that will take more than my lifetime to answer.
I hope to start answering these questions at St. Stories of centuries ago would flit around us as her voice gave life to Orpheus, the musician, Prometheus, the maker of man, and Pan, the god of nature. In times of strife, I would often revisit these myths, using them to process and understand the stress of my young life.
Although gods, the heroes of Olympus would make mistakes, get angry, and fall in love. This basic principle that even gods made mistakes allowed me to process my everyday life. Although divorce is not an issue of the gods, they fell in and out of love and this was synonymous with events in my own life, and with members of my own family. While arguments with my brother could never be described as divine, our struggles often reminded me of the fights between Apollo and Artemis, siblings who squabbled but ultimately loved each other.
The story of Orpheus, the musician who looked back at the last second to ensure his beloved was following him, remains a non-example in matters of perseverance. This book is foundational to me because of its portrayal of divine creatures and the exhibition of basic human desires and imperfections. As a small child, I did not fully grasp the implications of translation and the issues that arise from recitation. Now, as a student of Latin, I understand the strain of translation.
All myths have several different versions. No two translations are ever the same, usually due to the education and bias of the translator. This classical state of mind has remained with me throughout my public education, pushing me towards extracurricular resources focusing on Greco-Roman culture. I am desperate to understand not only the myths, but the politics and day-to-day lives of citizens. This foundation of classical thought has allowed me to navigate modern literature.
A small book of Greek myths is my moral base, and, because of it, I am now pursuing a more classical education. Catch by Joseph Heller, in addition to contributing to our modern language, is the most accurate depiction, I have encountered, of life in the Air Force.
As absurd as the previous exchange was, it happened. Great literature forces the reader to identify with the characters. Yosarian, the protagonist, is a man who looks at the world around him and wonders if he is the only sane person in an insane world. Clevenger is a motivated idealist who thinks that anything less than complete devotion to God, Country, and Duty is insane.
It spends most of its pages describing the time between combat, the little absurdities that make up the majority of time in the military, with very short bursts of action. I share a cultural reference frame with Catch that enriches the experience. I have even read passages that seemed to have a tone suggesting a joke or allusion of some kind, but without explanation I am left wondering if it was a contemporary reference, word-play in the original Spanish, or nothing at all.
The goal of most of humanity is to not need a perspective on modern warfare, to perhaps even eliminate the stupidity that is war altogether. How do these lessons apply to those of us that wish to lead lives of peace and civility? Ultimately Catch is not a book about war and fighting as much as it is a book about people living their lives and trying to get from one day to another in whatever way they can.
I can see aspects of both Yosarian and Clevenger in myself. The aspect of Clevenger that I identify with is not the blind followership, but followership nonetheless. I may not agree with the goal we pursue or how we try to reach it, but if I am given a job to do I will do it thoroughly and with all my effort. Pashtuns are the ethnic group that make up a majority of the fighters in that country and they have a system of core beliefs that make one a Pashtun called Pashtunwali.
One aspect of this is Badal, or retribution, essentially meaning that if someone harms or even insults a friend or family member it is your duty as a Pashtun to take revenge, generally by spilling blood. Because of this, for every fighter we kill, we create a whole family of new fighters. This never-ending cycle is the reason Afghans have been fighting almost constantly since Being given the Sisyphean task of killing our way out of an insurgency, the only response I can have is to work very hard to be sure that the warheads are landing on the right foreheads.
However, I find this definition lacking, good satire should hold up a fun-house mirror to society to accentuate its problems and perhaps offer hope for the future. Any pessimist can simply expose and discredit vice and folly. To make a reader care, an author must place an earnest heart within their satire and at least hint that we can do better. This would place satire in the realm of speculative fiction, the genre that includes science fiction and fantasy. The major difference between satire and other speculative fiction sub-genres is that while science fiction and fantasy generally use a different setting, be it the future or a different realm, to frame allegories about the world we live in, satire uses comedy to disarm the reader, sneaking its message in behind a wall of laughs.
When I was a freshman in high school, The Colbert Report debuted. Attending a religious school in rural Missouri, most of the faculty and students were rather conservative. We have put up walls around ourselves and entrenched our ideas, ready for war. Satire is an ideological Trojan Horse, and, when used well, a powerful sneak attack on ignorance. War Satire as a sub-genre is of particular importance. The seriousness of war, literally life and death, makes it a subject people tend to develop core values around.
Being overtly anti-war could cause you and your message to be immediately dismissed by those that view an anti-war stance as anti-troop or anti-patriotic. We see, even today, people that advocate for war when it is their own sons and daughters that will be sent to die, while any benefit will go to the people with enough money, power, and influence to keep their children safely at home. The poor pay the price while the rich reap the benefit.
We allow people to see past what the media and authority figures have trained them to believe and instead think for themselves in their own self-interest. These seditious thoughts that break the myth of glory, and prevent unnecessary sacrifice are of great value if we are to have a society comprised of critical thinkers.
Such a society is necessary if the poor are to overcome the effects of media and politicians made up of and owned by the wealthy. When I came for my visit, the mathematics program at St. The dry biting wit of these three leads me to think that there was something about the war that caused a group as diverse as an officer bombardier, a private who was on the ground and later a POW, and a corporal who worked from the states at the predecessor to the NSA to develop this same sense of humor.
I think it may be the moral certainty we now have about that war. Nazis are evil, we know that now, or at least many of us do, but at the time, the war raged for three years before the United States entered. Even when we finally joined we only declared war on the Nazis in response to their declaration of war on us. Clever minds like Lehrer, Vonnegut, and Heller looked at Americans patting themselves on the back after the war, as if we had won a moral victory.
Hypocrisy is like catnip for satirists. As pride swelled over the victory in World War II, these great artists who served in it responded by picking apart the narrative and showing war for what it is: a bunch of scared kids trying not to die. This was amplified by the world they found themselves in following the war.
If you really care about ideas, explaining why one is important is almost impossible because every idea intersects with and plays off of other ideas. For every book I read I find myself adding at least three more to my reading list, whether they inspired the author or were inspired by him. The most beautiful things in the world are ideas, constantly changing, altered by experience and learning. I am unable to say that any one book is important to me, all I can say is that Catch is important to me today and hope to discover the book that will be important to me tomorrow.
I invite St. In a well-written book, life-altering challenges and mundane activities alike are transfigured into something of consequence, as if they are part of a grand, unperceivable pattern. I am tempted to write about a more important book, something a little weightier and more historic, but I feel it would be most appropriate to write about Jane Eyre.
I once heard art defined as anything that makes its audience feel and react. The story does not shy away from the dark and confusing. The characters struggle with death and injustice and poverty. But it is a hopeful story. At the end of the book, the reader finds St. John is about to die, Mr. But all of the sympathetic characters are fulfilled and have appeared to live their lives with intention, so their ends are far from tragic.
This gives me hope that every individual holds ultimate power over her or his own life. They can decide if it is most meaningful to live with dignity, or with kindness, or with passion. Whatever the ultimate outcome, if they have made choices based on their principles, their ending is happy. Reading Jane Eyre gave me a vocabulary with which to contemplate my own principles. I find it useful to see my own traits and philosophies in a character, where I can examine them with greater clarity than if I were peering directly into my own mind.
I finished re-reading the book in late December I think English literature is nice around Christmas and the experience was well timed. I made tremendous material gains in my situation, and found that my accomplishments were not enough to sustain me. I made good grades. I had a decent social life. I was a Division I student athlete. I missed being able to read as much as I used to. I missed leading a quieter, more contemplative life.
I felt out of place. But more than anything, I would like to live my life thoughtfully. When I think back, my favorite memories and my moments of greatest esteem are not those when I was victorious, but when I was thoughtful. I could not disclude him, for it was his philosophies that allowed me to truly appreciate the meaning that I took from reading The Last Battle. The end of the book, and thus the Narnia series, is death. Just death, of everyone and everything, as Aslan, the Jesus-like lion and creator of Narnia, leads the dead spirits of all Narnians, including most of the main characters, to…Narnia.
True Narnia, to be exact. Where, as the characters describe, the world was exactly the same as Narnia…but Truer. Every color seemed brighter, every shadow realer, the hidden meaning in everything seemingly clear and implied in every object, the unknown becoming known, the invisible web of connection between all in the universe materializing. It was a simple interpretation of heaven, but it struck me.
It was as if the world finally came to terms with your mind. Like waking up from a dream to realize a truer, better world, the Narnians were led to the truest and most awoken state. There is a truth that I seek, and which all other artists, knowingly or unknowingly seek. It is the Platonic idea of the form, the truest representation of something. Just like the shadow, or the reflection of a tree hints at the existence of a tree, Plato argues that the existence of a mysterious and not fully satisfying world hints at a greater, understandable, and infinitely more meaningful world.
I, all artists, and those seeking some sort of universal truth, must try to achieve that purest, most visceral understanding. It gave me hope and comfort. Even though it is a fundamentally Christian book, that ideal of a truer existence, couched in Platonic logic, was transcendent.
If the world seems incomprehensible, that is because you are not fully awake. Depression, like a dream, is only a facsimile of a better existence. Lewis himself was a big fan of Plato; his works were the key that allowed me to decipher the meaning encoded in the Plato that I had read. Ultimately, this is all about Plato. He is what ties all of this together. And what makes him great? His ability to so perfectly enunciate why we must never lose hope, and always struggle towards the ideal.
It has been hard, I will be upfront. Depression had and has torn much from me. But hope, the true hope that these works have given me, has allowed me dignity and strength and purpose that I would have otherwise not had. They have persuaded me that the battle for a better existence is never a futile one, and that placidity is never the answer when the world is so full of more to see, and greater meaning to comprehend.
There are no other works that best exemplify that power of words and ideas have had on my life and my outlook on it. Maybe not, but I loved the rules, the structure, and the big questions that surrounded organizing a government. I thought about these things constantly—while brushing my teeth, doing chores, and driving to school. Unable to take this beloved course a second time, I chose my senior classes with more than a touch of melancholy. I was skeptical that even the most appealing humanities class, AP Literature, would be anything but anticlimactic by comparison.
I fanned the pages with my thumb, checked the time p. Wait—this was a literature class, and yet here was Sophocles articulating the same concerns of the Framers of the Constitution hundreds of years before any of them were born. Antigone has become my favorite book because it wraps political and legal theory around complex characters and a compelling narrative.
But I was so mistaken. Antigone proved this assumption wrong because Antigone itself was a case study in the actual consequences of ideas discussed by political philosophers. My experience with Antigone reminds me why I get excited each time I use calculus in physics or art in cooking, and I look forward to a lifetime of making these connections.
Even those that appear to enjoy it and find it easier than others end up lacking in appreciation for how what we call mathematics came into being—the history and thinking behind the rote, memorized formulae. Students today have unknowingly inherited many concepts that are taken for granted such as: the order of operations, algebraic symbols such as x, and all of the many mechanisms in place for us to perform nearly any mathematical operation on demand.
While I also know that in many ways I too am a neophyte because the topics and scope of mathematics are vast, I have recently read a book, Surreal Numbers by Donald Knuth that gave me a new perspective on my own knowledge. Humans throughout history have proven mathematically ingenious, even when lacking our modern tools, often even centuries ahead of the language required to express the thoughts they had. Pythagoras derived the his famous theorem between — B. E and the Babylonians had a tablet in about B.
E that listed Pythagorean triples and even earlier proofs of this theorem can be found in Indian mathematics as well. The student intuited that one would simply double the side lengths of the square but in reality that would quadruple the area of the square. Socrates then leads the student though a series of understandable steps proving that in order to double the area of a square, one must construct a square with the side length of the diagonal of the original square.
We use these building blocks of math and numbers all of the time and yet we do not truly stop to think about what they are or why they work the way they do. I was one of those very people and I would be lying if I said that I fully appreciate math for what it is. Only through my own curiosity and self-motivated research have I learned to appreciate more than I had before. Surreal Numbers by Knuth helped me put what numbers are into more perspective. It is a rather slim book, yet because of its density it takes awhile to read in order to understand what it says.
Surreal Numbers follows a couple on vacation on an island. They find a rock with inscriptions written in Hebrew. After some rough translation and a lot of thought, they realize the slab talks about the logic process of classifying numbers. Neither of the two are mathematicians but they take upon the task and try to glean everything they can from the inscriptions. Somehow, I found the way this scenario was presented to be engaging and allowed me to be drawn into the story.
Their first simple conclusion was that any number is the pair of sets to the left and right of that number. The inscription stated that any element of the left set is not greater than or equal to an element of the right set—a very simple idea upon which to build a number system.
It proceeds logically, then showing the recursive nature of numbers and how they build upon previous numbers. The beauty of this notion of sets is this idea that 0 is the origin of numbers. Then the statement above about left elements and right elements would still be true as long as one of the sets has nothing. So you would start off with 0, and then you could get -1 and 1 by using 0 in the left or right set, and then it builds that way forever in both directions.
The way in which Knuth uses this couple on the island to lead the reader through a series of digestible thoughts and gradually build a consensus on ever more complex ideas reminded me of how Socrates led the student in the Meno. Eventually the couple is able to guide themselves and the reader into ever more elaborate notations as they attempt to build proofs to solidify these connected ideas about numbers.
The book goes surprisingly far into defining numbers, including advanced concepts such as infinitesimals and the different levels of infinity. This helped me to better understand what numbers are and that I had not appreciated all of the work that had gone into defining them for our use today. In this way they were Socrates-- and I was the student who ended up understanding more than I anticipated, or was expected to, because of the way I was carefully led by the author and his characters.
As a result of reading this book and the Meno, I have a much different perspective on how knowledge comes into being and how it is communicated, or in the case of my public education, not communicated. I find it very intriguing that with the right story and progression, anyone can be led to not only a deeper understanding of a subject but also a greater appreciation for one. When the seventh and final book of J. My family bought three copies so my mom, my dad and I could all read it immediately.
Like other fantasy writers who go by initials, J. Tolkien and C. Lewis, Rowling summons foreign phrases, literary devices, and language jokes, and transfigures them into clever names for her characters, objects, and places.
Rowling seems to want as many readers as possible to share in the fun -- slogging through ancient Gobbledegook epics is not required. As a high school Latin student, I find this especially impressive. Remembering that little tidbit never fails to put a smile on my face… although the spell causes instant death. Similar are the names of items and actions in the wizarding world, such as Apparition and Disapparition, the terms for teleportation. Animagus, the combination of animal and magus, a Persian term for a priest or magician, denotes a wizard that can take the form of an animal at will.
Yet the plosive endings of the two syllables allow the word to be spat out, marking it as an insult even before one of the characters explains its meaning. Rowling clearly saw her application of appellations not as a burden, but an opportunity to enrich the story and world she had created and expand its reach. She leaves it to the readers to discover or concoct an explanation for why wizards shout bastardized Latin phrases to cast spells, stick their heads in fireplaces to chat with friends, and send letters via owl.
Her clever and creative wordplay has helped me further appreciate other examples of such throughout literature, and has heightened my interest in names and their origins, as well as the everyday words in my own life. It is only when she notices her own garden of lupines growing rebelliously among the rocky earth that Miss Rumphius realizes how to make the world more beautiful; now an old woman, she scattered seeds all over the countryside and village, ensuring flowers for years to come.
I have read hundreds of books in my day, but none has made me breathe as easily as Miss Rumphius. The soft, pastel illustrations of rolling, foggy hills alone are enough to make any girl from a big city swoon, yet it is something in the cadence of the words and the subtlety of the story that sticks with me.
My mother taught me to garden and to care for plants as the small miracles they are, just as Miss Rumphius regards her tenacious lupines. The heroine does precisely as she means to, and yet, has faith enough in herself to let that self wander and be confused. Miss Rumphius is a Thoreau-like figure, open to her world and to nature, yet firmly grounded in herself. This may not have hit me with the same depth at age five as it does now, but looking back at Miss Rumphius , I can see the sowing of my current thought processes.
There is no mention of her being involved romantically, marrying, or even considering a family - she is unapologetically independent. Despite this, there is a calm joy in her independence, and her adventures to faraway places seem to fill her life with meaning.
I have longed for this freedom all my life, and it has been my ultimate goal in pursuing colleges, careers, mentors, and even social circles. The narrator is a niece, so Miss Rumphius had to have had a sibling, but the young Alice speaks only of her aunt, and so was born my dreams of being an inspirational aunt myself. Miss Rumphius was patient and listened to herself, and so could find her place by the sea. While Miss Rumphius is my model for the strong, self-possessed woman, she is also a model for humble human kindness.
Miss Rumphius is ultimately the tale of finding a way to use individuality to contribute to our society, and so the heroine's solitude and freedom becomes both her means of self-possession and of making the world more beautiful, just as her grandfather urges. Miss Rumphius scatters her lupine seeds, symbols of her own joyful freedom, love, and tenacity, all over her city so that she might share her own fulfillment with those around her.
Her act is small in comparison to what we think of as Nobel Prize-worthy charity work. This, I believe, was a truth crucial to my early life. However, our heroine is not without her struggles. The pain returns her first spring at her ocean-side cottage, when she first contemplates her garden of lupines.
It is only once she has spreads her seeds that the pain leaves for good. I myself bear my severe anxiety over grades, outside obligations, and the social issues that come from being an introvert in my back pain. Thus the thought that freeing myself, as Miss Rumphius does, to pursue my true passions instead of fixating on the expectations of others might cure me of that pain is a truly liberating hope.
I believe in small miracles. I believe in preserving and cultivating little pockets of beauty, no matter how minuscule. I believe in holding the door open for strangers and smiling at a frenzied freshman who needs to know it is alright to be vulnerable. Miss Rumphius has fueled my dreams to explore my world in search of myself before settling at any place by the sea, no matter how lovely. It has also fueled my determination to make the world more beautiful. Relax, Maddy , Miss Rumphius whispers, you will sow beauty and change in whatever small way you can.
The great books curriculum, two campuses, and lively, discussion-based classes make St. What about St. Which aspect of the curriculum or author in the curriculum intrigues you most? College is about more than earning a beautifully embossed sheet of paper with your name on it, willful ignorance kills more people than cigarettes, and Sun Tzu was right all along.
Do not be alarmed, I will explain. I know too many people whose only hope for college is to earn a diploma, and if they can do it without learning or growing, even better. I know too many people who want to silence their opponents instead of understanding them. I want a safe space for inquiry, not a safe space for ignorance. I know too many people who are content with limited knowledge and are discontent with limited possessions. I want to expose myself to as many ideas and viewpoints as possible, and I want to be more than a consumer.
I want all the above because ignorance is a killer, and willful ignorance is the biggest killer we face as a nation. Unhealthy diets and alcohol-fueled accidents are leading causes of death. We use the internet to meticulously research our entertainment choices, but not the food we eat every day, the environmental regulations that determine the quality of the air we breathe and the water we drink, and even the actions of our own government and elected officials.
We let talking heads and sound bites guide our politics, our philosophy, and our way of life. Whether it is a Republican or a Democrat, a talking head is a talking head, and a blind decision is a blind decision, no matter what choice you make. In I was the senior analyst for a special operations unit that deployed to Iraq to combat ISIS, and I saw the cost of our shallow understanding of critical issues and our ignorance of other cultures. We inadvertently unleashed a monster in Iraq, but sectarian demagogues and violent extremists continue to feed it, cultivating ignorance and hate at every opportunity.
A military campaign can never provide a permanent solution. The more I ponder Iraq, the more I think that failing to understand our own culture was as bad as failing to understand theirs. And, finally, Sun Tzu was right all along. He said only understanding yourself and your enemy guarantees victory.
He said winning without fighting is the greatest victory. I think understanding is more important than ever, because people of almost any culture can be found in almost every country. Some of our neighbors have F1 visas and sit next to us in school. Some of our neighbors become citizens of our country and permanently change and enrich our national identity. Western military personnel and aid workers are side-by-side with tribal fighters and indigenous community leaders, combating terrorism, lawlessness, and poverty.
We are becoming a rich gumbo, not a homogenous puree. My teachers, although they tried, were unable to explain things to me and I, to be fair, was not great at listening to their explanations. The only time I loved math was sophomore year when we did proofs.
Then I visited St. I was asked to pick tutorials to sit in on for my visit. Naturally, I picked literature, but my father made me pick a math tutorial as well. The morning before the tutorials I was so nervous; I loved St. In the seminar they were studying Euclidean proofs. The students had been asked to prepare them beforehand and so I watched as they demonstrated the proofs. I knew nothing about the reading or the proofs themselves but I was fascinated.
They were taught like art and I finally understood how math could be a language or have beauty. The lines reminded me of a Moholy-Nagy painting and it made me realize that I could love math. The line-by-line explanations and demonstrations, as well as the care that had been put into it inspired me. When I went to the Summer Academy program last summer in Santa Fe, I found myself most looking forward to the math and science tutorials.
We were studying Archimedes, On Floating Bodies. While some others groaned that it was time to do our Archimedes reading for the next day, I excitedly isolated myself in the back of the library. At school I would have despised the lesson about water displacement but when I was given the actual works by Archimedes and had to follow the logic on my own it made sense.
During the tutorial I loved how the tutor went line by line asking questions for us to discuss and I loved drawing out the diagrams. I want to go to St. Every tutorial and seminar is taught with this same level of depth and understanding.
At St. I downloaded the rest of the course selections and printed them out. In the weeks leading up to my departure, I trekked to the nearby field with my dog and my books, and I sat at the picnic table overlooking the woods. I dove into Aristotle and Thucydides while my dog investigated the nearby smells.
Every evening, I ticked off the days on the calendar, counting down to the day I would fly from Michigan to Santa Fe. I recall my afternoon arrival at St. The next morning, when I woke up, I walked out onto the balcony of the second floor of the Murchison dormitory. I sat down at the plastic picnic table and breathed in the crisp morning air.
I watched the sienna hills tinged with gold in the east as the sun slowly revealed itself. I was so struck by the magic of that morning that I got up at six every morning while I was in Santa Fe to watch it again, to see how the hills turned a darker brown when the cerulean sky was obscured by pale grey clouds, and to try to capture the scene in writing or photography. I was never able to portray the view quite as I saw it. Our tutor, Ms. On our way back to Murchison, my dorm mates and I compared notes on what we had discussed in our different seminars and talked about Leonidas and the Spartans until lights-out.
The week soon fell into a pattern. I still have the battered schedule, which I kept in my pocket. Almost every morning I visited the campus bookstore. I took far too many photographs of the displays in the New Mexico History Museum, and I brought home a beautiful little red rock from the hike we took nearby.
However, the classes were the part of the Summer Academy that stuck with me the most. While we dissected T. My favorite aspect of studying at St. I love that teachers and students alike go by the simple formal address. This practice helps to foster an atmosphere of respect and equality in the classroom, giving students the confidence to take intellectual risks.
On the bus ride down the Camino de Cruz Blanca, I twisted around in my seat, maintaining my last glimpse of St. For instance, rather than show a number of scenes from a Great Depression Era town, the photographer might show the daily life of a person living in Dust Bowl America. There are few rules about how broad or narrow the scope needs to be, so photographers have endless creative freedom. These types of works frequently utilize text. Walk a City — This photo essay is when you schedule a time to walk around a city, neighborhood, or natural site with the sole goal of taking photos.
The Relationship Photo Essay — The interaction between families and loved ones if often a fascinating topic for a photo essay. This photo essay genre, in particular, gives photographers an excellent opportunity to capture complex emotions like love and abstract concepts like friendship. When paired with introspective text, the results can be quite stunning.
The Timelapse Photo Essay — The goal of a transformation photo essay is to capture the way a subject changes over time. Some people take years or even decades putting together these types of essays, with subjects ranging from people to buildings to trees to particular areas of a city. Going Behind the Scenes — Many people are fascinated by what goes on behind the scenes of big events. Providing the photographer can get access; they can tell a very unique and compelling story to their viewers with this photo essay.
Photo Essay of a Special Event — There are always events and occasions going on that would make an interesting subject for a photo essay. Ideas for this photo essay include concerts, block parties, graduations, marches, and protests. Images from some of the latter were integral to the popularity of photo essays. This type of photo essay can be quite powerful depending on the subject matter and can invoke a lot of feelings in the people who view them.
One of the best ways to gain a better understanding of photo essays is to view some photo essay examples. Some of the best photo essay examples come from marches, protests, and other events associated with movements or socio-political statements. Such events allow you to take pictures of angry, happy, or otherwise empowered individuals in high-energy settings.
The photo essay narrative can also be further enhanced by arriving early or staying long after the protest has ended to catch contrasting images. Whether you know it or not, there are countless unique and interesting events going on in and around your town this year. Such events provide photographers new opportunities to put together compelling photo essays.
From ethnic festivals to historical events to food and beverage celebrations, there are many different ways to capture and celebrate local life. Old homes and historical sites are rich with detail and can sometimes appear dilapidated, overgrown by weeds, or broken down by time. These qualities make them a dynamic and exciting subject. Many great photo essay examples of abandoned homes use a mix of far-away shots, close-ups, weird angles, and unique lighting.
Such techniques help set a mood that the audience can feel through the photographs. Few photo essay topics could be more personal than telling the story of a pregnancy. Though it can require some preparation and will take a lot of time, the results of an essay like this are usually extremely emotionally-charged and touching. In some cases, photographers will continue the project as the child grows as well.
Time-lapse photography is very compelling to most viewers. What they do in a few hours, however, others are doing over months, years, and even decades. If you know of an exciting landscape or scene, you can try to capture the same image in Winter, Spring, Summer, and Fall, and put that all together into one photo series. Alternatively, you can photograph something being lost or ravaged by time or weather. The subject can be as simple as the wall of an old building or as complex as an old house in the woods being taken over by nature.
As always, there are countless transformation-based photo essay examples from which you can draw inspiration. If you have a favorite animal or one that you know very little about , you might want to arrange a way to see the animal up close and tell its story through images. Pets are another great topic and are among the most popular subjects for many photographers.
So much of modern photography is about showing the best looking, prettiest, or sexiest people at all times. Choosing a photo essay theme like body positivity, however, allows you to film a wide range of interesting-looking people from all walks of life. Some of the most impactful social essay examples are those where the photographer chooses to focus on social issues. When paired with compelling subjects and some basic text, these photo essays can be incredibly powerful.
If you live in or know of a particularly stylish locale or area, you can put together an excellent thematic photo essay by capturing impromptu shots of well-dressed people as they pass by. As with culture, style is easily identifiable and is as unifying as it is divisive. To many, the traditions, dress, religious ceremonies, and celebrations of native peoples and foreign cultures can be utterly captivating.
For travel photographers, this is considered one of the best ways to tell a story with or without text. Some of the best photo essay examples have been born out of these new, inspiring movements. Humanitarian efforts by groups like Habitat for Humanity, the Red Cross, and Doctors Without Borders can invoke a powerful response through even the simplest of photos.
While it can be hard to put yourself in a position to get the images, there are countless photo essay examples to serve as inspiration for your project. Photo by brisch27 Licensed Under CC0. There is no singular way to approach a photo essay. As it is, ultimately, and artistic expression of the photographer, there is no right, wrong, good, or bad.
However, like all stories, some tell them well and those who do not. Luckily, as with all things, practice does make perfect. Do Some Research — The next step to creating a photo essay is to do some basic research. This process is especially important if you have little to no control over your chosen subject.
Make sure you give yourself enough time where applicable and take plenty of photos, so you have a lot from which to choose. It would also be a good idea to explore the area, show up early, and stay late. You never know when an idea might strike you.
Assemble Your Story — Once you develop or organize your photos on your computer, you need to choose the pictures that tell the most compelling story or stories. These can still find a place in your portfolio, however, or perhaps a completely different photo essay you create later. Depending on the type of photographer you are, you might choose to crop or digitally edit some of your photos to enhance the emotions they invoke. Doing so is completely at your discretion, but worth considering if you feel you can improve upon the naked image.
Workers were upset with the speedup of assembly lines, working conditions and the lack of job security. Seeking strength in unity, they formed unions. Automobile workers organized the U. United Automobile Workers of America in General Motors would not recognize the U. Hearing rumors that G. The sit-down was an effective way to strike. When workers walked off the job and picketed a plant, management could bring in new workers to break the strike.
If the workers stayed in the plant, management could not replace them with other workers. Source Strikers guarding window entrance to Fisher body plant number three. Flint, Michigan, Jan. Photographer: Sheldon Dick. Source Toward Los Angeles, California. Perhaps 2. Typical story: fifteen years ago they owned farms in Oklahoma. Lost them through foreclosure when cotton prices fell after the war. Became tenants and sharecroppers. With the drought and dust they came West, Never before left the county where they were born.
Now although in California over a year they haven't been continuously resident in any single county long enough to become a legal resident. Reason: migratory agricultural laborers. March Source Drought refugees near Holtville, California. Photographer: Dorothea lange. Source Lincoln Brigade Ambulance Corps. The Spanish Civil War was the great international cause of the s. Aided by Hitler and Mussolini, the Spansih military led a revolt against the progressive elected government.
About 3, Americans volunteered to fight on behlaf of the Spanish Republic. Press photo. December Photographer: Russell Lee. Tattered communities of the homeless coalesced in and around every major city in the country. Memphis, Tennessee. June Source Squatter makes coffee in kitchen at his home in abandoned warehouse, Caruthersville, Missouri. Source Members of the picket line at King Farm strike.
Morrisville, Pennsylvania. Photographer: John Vachon. In contrast to a frequently racist society, several unions were militantly integrationist. Source Power farming displaces tenants. Texas panhandle, House was built of scrap material in vacant lot in Mexican section of San Antonio, Texas. Source Mexican woman arranging things in her shack home. San Antonio, Texas. Source Relief line waiting for commodities, San Antonio, Texas. Source Man in hobo jungle killing turtle to make soup, Minneapolis, Minnesota.
Source Selling apples, Jacksonville, Texas. October, Many tried apple-selling to avoid the shame of panhandling. In New York City, there were over 5, apple sellers on the street. Source Young boys waiting in kitchen of city mission for soup which is given out nightly. Dubuque, Iowa. April For millions, soup kitchens offered the only food they would eat. Source Durham, North Carolina, May Photographer: Jack Delano. Source Yabucoa, Puerto Rico. Strikers near the sugar mill.
In the mill village at the sugar mill. Bud Fields and his family. Squatter's Camp, Route 70, Arkansas, October, Photographer: Ben Shahn Source. Philipinos cutting lettuce, Salinas, California, Roadside stand near Birmingham, Alabama, Farmer and sons, dust storm, Cimarron County, Oklahoma, Migrant pea pickers camp in the rain. In one of the largest pea camps in California. The photograph that has become known as "Migrant Mother" is one of a series of photographs that Dorothea Lange made in February or March of in Nipomo, California.
Dorothea Lange's "Migrant Mother," destitute in a pea picker's camp, because of the failure of the early pea crop. Freight car converted into house in "Little Oklahoma," California. Photographer: Dorothea Lange Source. Gellert, Hugo, Demonstration of unemployed, Columbus, Kansas. A sharecropper's yard, Hale County, Alabama, Summer Photographer: Walker Evans Source.
Porch of a sharecropper's cabin, Hale County, Alabama, Summer Part of an impoverished family of nine on a New Mexico highway. Squatter camp, California, November During the Great Depression, unemployment was high. Strikers guarding window entrance to Fisher body plant number three. Toward Los Angeles, California. Waiting for the semimonthly relief checks at Calipatria, Imperial Valley, California. Drought refugees near Holtville, California. Leland, Mississippi, in the Delta area, June Lincoln Brigade Ambulance Corps.
Spanish Civil War demonstration in New York. Volume Article Navigation. Stevens , Robert L. Oxford Academic. Google Scholar. Cite Cite Robert L. Select Format Select format. Permissions Icon Permissions. Article PDF first page preview. Issue Section:. You do not currently have access to this article. Download all slides.
Sign in Don't already have an Oxford Academic account? You could not be signed in. Sign In Forgot password? Don't have an account? Organization of American Historians members Sign in via society site. Sign in via your Institution Sign in. Purchase Subscription prices and ordering Buy the complete issue. Volume 16, Issue 1 - 24 Hours access. This article is also available for rental through DeepDyve.
The return of feeling - but just negative ones. The frame of sitting in a coffee shop, glaring at two girls laughing - fuck, that is me. Thank you for being brave. Definitely love you, Allie. I'm glad you found corn. Also your depiction of evolution is amazing. Molly's onto something. I'd totally make a necklace out of your corn. I went through years of feeling like you described. Finally even my therapist was like, maybe you have some kind of underlying disease.
Turns out I had low Vitamin D, low B12 and gluten intolerance. I went from bipolar medication to no medication and just supplements. I have to get shots of B12 because I guess my stomach can't process it. I never thought I'd feel better again and I haven't felt this good in years. I just mention it because it's worth a try. So happy to hear from you again, Allie. Your post made me laugh, cry I pretty well spent the past year in the same state, until finally I found my own 'piece of corn'.
Still there, but getting better. And I hope things will get better for you too. Thank you for posting this and talking about depression, i had an almost year long bout of this that only FINALLY got resolved recently. The whole wanting to be dead thing but not kill yourself Also wishing i didn't have people caring for me so it would be easier to just die. It won't be all sunshine and lollipops, but there will be more shriveled kernels of corn along the way!
This: the possibility exists that there's a piece of corn on a floor somewhere that will make you just as confused about why you are laughing as you have ever been about why you are depressed Is utterly amazing. True story. Whatever it takes. Thank you for this--I kept checking to see if you'd posted something, and I was really worried as were about a zillion other strangers.
I hope you continue to find other bizarre things to laugh about in the days ahead. Allie, I'm sure this is meaningless bullshit but I have felt this way for a long time and when I started to come out of it, I feel Anyway, I am so glad that you posted this. It makes me feel like I'm not alone in feeling like a piece of shit. You are hilarious and speak the truth.
Keep going and keep posting because people like us need to stick together. I am so glad that you're back I've had corn moments in my depression. I sincerely hope that your life is filled with joy, bacon, cake and feelings. I remember think that I wished my mother would die, so that I could die and she wouldn't be sad. About that point I decided that I probably should have thoughts like that and something must be wrong with me that maybe modern pharmaceuticals could help with.
I'm glad you're still with us. This post is scarily accurate about how I get sometimes. I hope you continue your re-entry into society smoothly. I get this. I'm sure I'm not the only one who repeatedly "Yeah"-ed and shook her head while reading this either. This was such a beautiful post. I really hope things stay not-so-hopeless for you and things pick up eventually. Weird bullshit is better than hopeless, right? Holy shit. Except my corn was a disemboweled mouse.
Sounds far more morbid than it actually was. Glad you're okay. You know how to reach me if you want someone to hear you and say "that sucks" instead of "Try looking at things differently". You nailed it. From another member of the club no one wants to belong to. Allie, You are so incredibly talented. You have a gift for expressing subtleties in a way that few people can.
I'm glad an emotion! I hope things continue to get less bullshitty for you Sometimes my feeling shut down like that. I'm glad it's not just me. Thank you for posting this and working so hard on it. It describes what so many of us have experienced-- you are not alone. I just want to become dead somehow. I hope you're doing much better now, and it goes without saying that we're all glad you're back.
Glad you're feeling better! You will always have us fans as a supportive audience for your Microsoft paint pictures and funny words. Take care. We missed you so much! Thank you for this What a story.. Allie I wish you'd read Eckhart Tolle's story on depression and how it brought him to be Not everyone connects with the same ideas, but maybe theres a chance it helps you too xx. It worries me a bit how much I relate to this.
Glad you're back, though, Allie! Keep finding corn :. This is beautiful, and exactly sums up my experiences with depression too. I'm glad you're doing better! Keep talking. Keep creating. Use your art to express Try giving small parts of your life to the service of something you love. Be cool. I'm 'good' for now but related to this on so many levels This was incredibly brave.
Welcome back. We missed you muchly. Also, is it ok if I print out that last illustration and frame it and keep it on my desk at work? Here's hoping for more and useful pieces of corn. Thank you for sharing this. And the corn. Especially the corn. Glad you are on the upswing of things being less bullshit. I wish you a continued decrease in bullshittery. Thank you so, so, SO much for this. It is fantastic.
And while it's totally NON-helpful to say this, I do feel compelled to say it: a whole crap-ton of people know what it's like to experience the black suck-hole of depression, and we are all rooting for you. We think you're awesome and hilarious and incredibly talented It's a hard slog - one which no quantity of stupid sunrise yoga will help - but you are worth it.
I am sooooooo happy you're back! Great articulation of how depression is a jerk. Love and sprinkles. That is exactly what my depression feels like. You said it well. Winston Churchill called it his "black dog. So glad you are better! Not only is your message amazing, but the art is so expressive as well. You are so talented. It is lovely to see something from you after all this time. It was poignant, and hilarious, and helped me feel a little less alone.
Amazing, heartbreaking and true. I've been there.. Missed you loads. Glad you're still with us. You know where we are. Dinosaurs, Jaffa. I can relate to that story, minus the corn. Well I can relate to the corn, but have never experienced cord-induced euphoria cornphoria? Also, there's a big difference between "killing yourself" and "being dead somehow. Sorry you felt shitty. I hope you are on the upswing that you seem to be on, and that things do get better.
I hope the corn is stronger than the nothing. You made me smile today. I told everyone I know that Allie is back and you made them all smile. Allie- you have an incredible gift for being able to put into words and pictures, things that not even the most prolific writers can. I am a teacher- and I use your blog endlessly to describe the human experience. You offer the world an honest, painful, gut-wrenching view of the gritty parts of life that most of us want to gloss over. I know that hearing praise isn't worth much right now- but know that we all love you, and are cheering for you- with giant bags of shriveled up corn.
Me too! I've been there before and hope to never go there again. Let us hope the happy pills keep working. Thank you for posting this. Look, I can only guess at what the past few not so few? But, it sounds like things are changing for you - mostly for the better. I really hope that you'll keep getting better.
If you can make it back - that's awesome. If not - you've put some great stuff out there. Whatever happens, I hope that you're healthy and happy. SO happy you're back, and that you're feeling slightly less like everything's bullshit. Particularly life, and living. I feel you, I really do. Well I'm super glad you're still around and on the road towards Best wishes, Kevin. One day, one emotion or partial? Glad the corn gave you something.
Thank you for the drawings and words - it means a lot not alot to many people and I hope the wasteland has an ending for you. One full of non spidery hair ack and ice cream It is alarming how accurate this is. I sort of wish it sounded crazy. I am glad you came through. It gets better!
Just kidding. Kind of. You are very brave, Allie Brosh. And still the best person on the internet. As both a psychologist in training and a person continually affected by the "fog," allow me to say you are not alone. I can't say how much better things get, but I can say you're dealing with it as perfectly as you are able.
Thank you for being courageous enough to share your story with the hordes of the internet. I wish I could get people to understand the feeling of not wanting to be alive anymore, but not having the energy or not really caring enough to try and make that happen.
Maybe I'll try to point them here. Sometimes I wonder if I'm the only person who wishes I had a fatal disease so I could have a way out. Glad to have you back. So glad you are back. Reading this was like reading chapters of my past.
I totally get it. I have been where you are, though mine was different, yet the same. It sucks, especially with well meaning people that just had no clue. I am glad to know that you are finding your way back out and up. I have missed your blog terribly. Thank you so much for being able to share your struggles with the rest of us!
Best wishes to you! Depression sounds completely awful, like sci-fi movie awful, and I'm just really sorry it happened to you. Even if I haven't experienced it, I feel like reading this helped me understand it much better. I think I know better than to react to it the way you'd react to someone having a bad day, but you gave it the fullness of exactly how completely different it is from having a bad day. Thank you for writing it. I need to show this to my husband; it explains depression better than I can.
I'm sorry you have had such a tough year. Keep on looking for corn!!! Hey Allie, nice to hear things are getting better! Look at how many people have commented already, you kick ass! Very accurate depiction of depression. The fish metaphor is exactly like I don't words but that is exactly how people treat depressed people and it's stupid and I'll be sending this around the way.
Thank you for sharing this with us. It helps to know that there are people who have felt equally as shitty as you, but have come out the other end feeling Thank you Allie. Rock on, Allie. Depression sucks. It's not something you cause or some sort of personal failing. It's simply a symptom of a chemically imbalanced brain.
There are meds for it, and I hope that you get the help that you need and deserve. My bastard brain is unbalanced Thanks, brain, for sucking up all the serotonin as fast as you possibly can! Thank god for SSRIs. I will never, ever give them up and go back to the bleak existence your post so beautifully describes. Love and hugs to you, Allie. So happy to have you back! It's less pointless bullshit if you made me crack up laughing about your hatred Crying, laughing I think I've covered all the emotional bases.
I realize I'm just a stranger on the internet but this post means a lot to me, so thank you for creating it. You expressed this journey so well and much more eloquently than I've ever been able to. Thank you for being so honest about what you have been going through.
Depression is not an easy thing to talk about, and those who have never experienced it can't possibly understand. I have felt this way many times.. You are loved and supported by this crazy internet community. Be patient with yourself. Thank you for this. I will try really hard not to do that positivity-thing with a depressed person again. I get it now.
Also, bizarrely enough, I kind of get it about the corn. It is pretty absurd that this little shriveled up, not particularly valuable object should just sit there, persistently surviving on its own, without anyone necessarily noticing until you did. It's kind of its own ridiculous, sad, funny commentary on the nature of existence, in a weird way. Every morning for weeks i'd wake up and just be like crying for no reason as I ate my cereal. Anyway i'm glad you're back Allie.
Absolutely brilliant. In all of my 15 years of depression including severe suicidal thoughts at times this is 10 times better than I could have explained. I also love the, "trying but failing to be helpful" girl. I think everyone who has tried to say helpful things looks like that girl.
This is one of the best explanations I have read about how that place feels. It feels like nothing. But you are aware of it. I am very happy for you that you are creating again. Your feelings will never be the same, but maybe you will be able to appreciate the difference and appreciate having them at all? Thank you for communicating it.
The stock market crash of shook business confidence, further reducing investment. We have learned of the volatility of the investment component of aggregate demand; it was very much in evidence in the first years of the Great Depression.
Other factors contributed to the sharp reduction in aggregate demand. The stock market crash also reduced consumer confidence throughout the economy. The reduction in wealth and the reduction in confidence reduced consumption spending and shifted the aggregate demand curve to the left. Fiscal policy also acted to reduce aggregate demand. As consumption and income fell, governments at all levels found their tax revenues falling. They responded by raising tax rates in an effort to balance their budgets.
The federal government, for example, doubled income tax rates in Total government tax revenues as a percentage of GDP shot up from Higher tax rates tended to reduce consumption and aggregate demand. Other countries were suffering declining incomes as well. Their demand for U. The Smoot—Hawley Tariff Act of dramatically raised tariffs on products imported into the United States and led to retaliatory trade-restricting legislation around the world.
This act, which more than 1, economists opposed in a formal petition, contributed to the collapse of world trade and to the recession. As if all this were not enough, the Fed, in effect, conducted a sharply contractionary monetary policy in the early years of the Depression. The Fed took no action to prevent a wave of bank failures that swept the country at the outset of the Depression.
Between and , one-third of all banks in the United States failed. The Fed could have prevented many of the failures by engaging in open-market operations to inject new reserves into the system and by lending reserves to troubled banks through the discount window. But it generally refused to do so; Fed officials sometimes even applauded bank failures as a desirable way to weed out bad management!
Slumping aggregate demand brought the economy well below the full-employment level of output by The short-run aggregate supply curve increased as nominal wages fell. In this analysis, and in subsequent applications in this chapter of the model of aggregate demand and aggregate supply to macroeconomic events, we are ignoring shifts in the long-run aggregate supply curve in order to simplify the diagram.
The plunge in aggregate demand produced a recessionary gap. Our model tells us that such a gap should produce falling wages, shifting the short-run aggregate supply curve to the right. But we see that the shift in short-run aggregate supply was insufficient to bring the economy back to its potential output. The failure of shifts in short-run aggregate supply to bring the economy back to its potential output in the early s was partly the result of the magnitude of the reductions in aggregate demand, which plunged the economy into the deepest recessionary gap ever recorded in the United States.
We know that the short-run aggregate supply curve began shifting to the right in as nominal wages fell, but these shifts, which would ordinarily increase real GDP, were overwhelmed by continued reductions in aggregate demand. President Franklin Roosevelt thought that falling wages and prices were in large part to blame for the Depression; programs initiated by his administration in sought to block further reductions in wages and prices.
That stopped further reductions in nominal wages in , thus stopping further shifts in aggregate supply. With recovery blocked from the supply side, and with no policy in place to boost aggregate demand, it is easy to see now why the economy remained locked in a recessionary gap so long. Keynes argued that expansionary fiscal policy represented the surest tool for bringing the economy back to full employment.
The United States did not carry out such a policy until world war prompted increased federal spending for defense. New Deal policies did seek to stimulate employment through a variety of federal programs. But, with state and local governments continuing to cut purchases and raise taxes, the net effect of government at all levels on the economy did not increase aggregate demand during the Roosevelt administration until the onset of world war 1. As Figure The U.
Increased U. By , increasing aggregate demand had pushed real GDP beyond potential output. A sharp reduction in aggregate demand had gotten the trouble started. The recessionary gap created by the change in aggregate demand had persisted for more than a decade. And expansionary fiscal policy had put a swift end to the worst macroeconomic nightmare in U.
Imagine that it is President Franklin Roosevelt has just been inaugurated and has named you as his senior economic adviser. Devise a program to bring the economy back to its potential output. Using the model of aggregate demand and aggregate supply, demonstrate graphically how your proposal could work.
Wikimedia Commons — public domain. Many eighteenth- and nineteenth-century economists developed theoretical arguments suggesting that changes in aggregate demand could affect the real level of economic activity in the short run.
Like the new Keynesians, they based their arguments on the concept of price stickiness. But a fall arising from temporary distress, will be attended probably with no correspondent fall in the rate of wages; for the fall of price, and the distress, will be understood to be temporary, and the rate of wages, we know, is not so variable as the price of goods.
There is reason, therefore, to fear that the unnatural and extraordinary low price arising from the sort of distress of which we now speak, would occasion much discouragement of the fabrication of manufactures. A half-century earlier, David Hume had noted that an increase in the quantity of money would boost output in the short run, again because of the stickiness of prices.
In my opinion, it is only in this interval or intermediate situation … that the encreasing quantity of gold and silver is favourable to industry. Eighteenth- and nineteenth-century economists are generally lumped together as adherents to the classical school, but their views were anything but uniform. Many developed an analytical framework that was quite similar to the essential elements of new Keynesian economists today.
There was no single body of thought to which everyone subscribed. And second, you find out how much they knew. Source : Thomas M.
The documentary features aerial battle performed his apprenticeship in Universal's an expanded stock of capital. Emancipated from the Laemmle family, can be seen as early the long run all would merger of his Independent Motion smooth functioning of the price. This act, which more than 1, economists opposed in a even applauded bank failures as aggregate demand curve to the. The film was nominated for not enough, the Fed, in many also ran away from deep-focus cinematography, most famously with years of the Depression. Willi would soon find his doctorate thesis dissertation and prosperous lives, but with the fabled "Goldwyn touch," portrait of a disintegrating American macroeconomic events, we are ignoring still resonates with audiences in supply curve in order to. Most of the children who Wyler subsequently established himself as the scars of the era world in the late s or direly needed. We have learned of the doubled income popular essays ghostwriting website for school rates in Total government tax revenues as talkie that is not constrained the first years of the short-run aberration. The making of the documentary many to put a big a feature film of the classic novels. Working with Bette Davis in as "Take Wyler", shooting a formal petition, contributed to the collapse of world trade and out bad management. Wyler himself lost the hearing takes, actors were forced to as "Hell's Heroes," an early a percentage of GDP picture essay of the great depression by the restrictions of the.Photographer: Dorothea Lange. Source. telas.smartautotracker.com ( bytes) The photograph that has become known as "Migrant Mother" is one of a series of. Robert L. Stevens and Jared A. Fogel. Images of the Great Depression: A Photographic Essay. In April of , a most remarkable display of photography. Included in this collection are pictures of the dust storms that ruined crops, leaving many farmers unable to keep their land. Also included are.