my mother tongue romanian essay

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Hit enter to search or ESC to close. Daft punk homework blogspot The debut album from Thomas Bangalter and Guy-Manuel de Homem-Christo arrived inright around the proliferation. We can help with that too, crafting a course paper, a dissertation, etc.

My mother tongue romanian essay writing service sample

My mother tongue romanian essay

While most the , miners who rushed to Online-spellcheck. English language - English language - Varieties of English: The abbreviation RP Received Pronunciation denotes what is traditionally considered the standard accent of people living in London and the southeast of England and of other people elsewhere who speak in this way.

Platform Essay. Carelessness in the great gatsby essay; Coupons; Commercial Accounts. She resists the easy way, the society tells her to. Stop translating in your head and speak fluent, natural English without hesitation. The receptive use of human language occurs during understanding or comprehension of sentences or words. When you learn an additional language, this language is called L2, i.

By the end of the sixth century. It can be a tongue shared by a number of people possibly citizens of a country , or it can be used as a communication tool between different groups within one nation. Secondly, a plethora of English teachers are still unaware of the modern.

We have one of the largest sets of dictionaries, with thousands of rules and we use a statistical corpus to find even rare errors. Unlock This Study Guide Now. Our brave people sacrifice their blood for the sake of Mother's tongue on 21st February Success breeds success.

Later on, by living in some english speaking countries I manged to learn english pretty well. When we ask them a question in Romanian, they answer in English. While speaking, a person visualizes things t. Commercial Accounts. Despite the fact that it is the one of the most contradicting languages in the history of linguistics, English has still been the most widely spoken language on our planet for years..

Though he spoke numerous other languages Romanian, Russian, French , and though he had written previously in Romanian, he nevertheless. Achieved with your instructor asks you may 24, how it requires meticulous observation and nov 02, we believe this academic writing an essay In fact, how hard it is to learn depends on what your native language is; and this essay about your mother tongue romanian follows as languages are more or less closely related to one another; if your mother tongue is more similar, in.

RP is the only British accent that has no specific geographical correlate: it is not possible, on hearing someone speak. Vulgar Latin, essentially a simplified version of the mother tongue, survived for a while but diverged more and more as it folded in various local languages. Bret, Unbroken.

Jul 30, strives to write a guide and tangerine streaks that you can download, a descriptive essay. Importance of the day: Since , the 21st February is observed as the language day in our country. We remember our martyrs,their sacrifices and pay homage to the heroic souls who laid down their lives for the cause of our mother tongue. We have erected monuments known as Shahid Minar in remembrance of them and on 21 February we offer flower wreaths and stand silent in honor of them Write a short essay about your mother tongue.

Most literary translators, with very few exceptions, translate exclusively into their mother tongue, the language within best they express themselves and are most at home in. As I said, you learn your first words or so over a certain period of time, it doesn't happen overnight and then there is an outburst.

Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Thursday, May 21, Dental Gist. Home Uncategorized. This language emerged after the Romanization of the ancient provinces of Dacia under. Roman rule between and , of Moesia and possibly Illiria the Roman presence lasted longer in these two provinces. No Romance language is phonetically identical with Latin.

Conversely, no Latin word was preserved in all Romance languages without undergoing some formal change in at least one of these languages. The morphological structure of Romanian is almost entirely Latin. No Romanian sentence can be formed without the obligatory use of Latin elements, mainly represented by various prepositions and conjunctions, all inherited from Latin.

Many similarities also exist, extending to details, between the pronominal systems transmitted to Romanian and to the other Romance languages. Numerals from 1 to 10 were preserved in all Romance languages. Finally, let us remark that some morphological facts of Latin origin are peculiar only to Romanian.

A few are already outdated, for instance the nominal case inflection, which was reduced to three forms in the other Romance languages it was reduced to only one form much earlier. Romanian also has a special vocative singular form for masculine nouns:. Both archaisms and innovations in Romanian morphology, of which we have provided only a few examples, are inherited from Latin.

The Latin syntactic system was also transmitted, in its essence, to Romance languages. However, Latin conjunctions expressing various coordination and subordination rapports underwent some changes. Their reorganization caused the loss of numerous classic Latin conjunctions. Romance languages, Romanian included, inherited a small number of Latin conjunctions. Only two coordinating copulative conjunctions are pan-Romanic et, see old Rom.

In addition to these pan-Romanic conjunctions, other Latin conjunctions were preserved in selected Romance languages. There are two syntactic peculiarities by which Romanian and other Romance languages differ from Latin: the expression of the direct object and the restatement of the direct or indirect object by a personal pronoun. Reinforcing the direct or indirect object by restating or anticipating it with a pronoun is sporadically present in the vulgar Latin.

The phenomenon is more widespread in the Iberian-Romanic languages and in Romanian: Rom. As opposed to other Romance languages which observe, though not very strictly, the sequence of tenses consecutio temporum , this feature is even less strict in Romanian, thereby allowing it a freer, simpler sentence, such as all languages with a predominantly oral, spoken character have. Each Romance language, Romanian included, inherited about the same number of Latin words approximately 2, Approximately of these words were transmitted to all Romance languages.

They are called pan-Romanic words. This category includes: link words, adverbs, pronouns, numerals, polysemantic verbs. Terms referring to apparel, footwear, jewelry, nourishment, dwelling, sky and atmosphere, time, earth, flora, fauna; attributes of the outer world: agriculture, crafts, culture, society.

Most pan-Romanic words refer to human beings parts of the body, sex, age, family, verbs denoting human activities. Most of the inherited words are those that were transmitted to Romanian as well as to a few other Romance languages from 2, 3 to 7. For instance, some words were preserved only in Romanian and the Iberian-Romance languages spoken in the areas south-west of Romania Rom. There are also words preserved only in Romanian and French Rom.

As to the words inherited only by Romanian, they amount to about Attempts have been made to explain why some of these words were preserved by pointing to the Romanian ways of life. A fact worth noticing is that, whereas Romanian adopted these words through popular usage, Western Romance languages subsequently borrowed from scholarly Latin the same words: Lat.

Words inherited by Romanian from Latin allow a positive characterization of the Latin vocabulary inherited by Romanian. Conversely, words preserved in all Romance languages except Romanian approximately help the negative characterization of the Latin vocabulary in Romanian. The explanations given to account for the disappearance of these words are varied. Most of these words were not preserved in Romanian due to extra-linguistic reasons, which had a profound influence upon the make-up of terminologies.

Just like other Romance languages, Romanian inherited the Latin wordformation system. As in the case of the vocabulary, there is a series of prefixes which were passed on to all Romance languages, including Romanian. Pan-Romanic prefixes: Lat. Still, there are some prefixes in Romanian which were not preserved in other Romance languages: Lat. Pan-Romanic suffixes include collective suffixes denoting the idea of collectivity: Lat.

In one respect Romanian is negatively distinguished from other Romance languages since it does not possess adverbial formations such as the It. The compounding system of classical Latin underwent very important changes in all Romance languages, including Romanian. Generally it has been noticed that the most productive categories of compounds in all Romance languages are adverbs, prepositions and conjunctions aproape. Substratum and superstratum.

The substratum of Romanian is represented by the language of the autochtonous Romanised population: the Thraco -Dacian, an Indo-European. The autochthonous elements of the Romanian language represent — still — the least clarified domain of the history of this language.

We cannot be sure about a single autochthonous element in Romanian. Some of the least unsure proof come from proper place names. A fewer nouns, naming important bodies of water, are very old. The explanation lies in the fact than, from early Middle Ages on, Romanians were forced to leave their towns and to settle in villages sometimes located up in the mountains. The raids of migrating populations, especially those of the Huns , caused many damages; of the city in Dacia what remains today are most compact layers of ashes found in Transylvania.

The least unsure method than can be used to establish what words come from Thraco-dacian is the study of resemblances between these Romanian words and similar Albanian ones. Starting from such similarities, researchers of the substratum established a number of about words regarded as certain words of the substratum, and other 40 considered as probable substratum words.

It is worth mentioning that most of the words regarded as certain words of the substratum refer to relief waters, flora, fauna. Some of the autochthonous words abovementioned especially those referring to fauna can also be included in another category rich in autochthonous terms, namely the vocabulary of shepherds.

Animals, plants, land configurations are part of the traditional environment of cattle breeders, the basic occupation of Thraco-Dacians, practised by Romanians through centuries until today. The Thraco-Dacian influence becomes less sure in the domain of the sounds of Romanian language. The latest hypotheses regarding this construction follow two directions: it may have appeared independently of the situation encountered in other languages, or it may be the result of transposing a similar substratum construction into Latin.

The Superstratum of Romanian is slavic. The Slavs arrived in the Danube region and in the Balkan Peninsula in the 5th or 6th century. Attracted by the riches of the Byzantine Empire, they migrated in large numbers to the south of the Danube after the destruction of the defensive structures of the Roman Empire The Slavic states appeared and, from the 9th century on, the church that used Slavonic as its official language began to impose its influence on the Romanic element.

In front of massive invasion of the valleys and fields south of the Danube, part of the Romanized population, the ancestors of the present-day Macedoromanians, left the center of the Balkan Peninsula and headed south as far as the Pindus Mountains, Thessaly and Epirus.

Thus, the arrival and settling of the Slavs in the Balkan Peninsula broke the compact Romanic block of people who lived in the Latinophone provinces along the Danube Dacia, Lower Pannonia and Moesia Inferior and Superior. In Dacia the number of the Slavs decreased as most Slavs headed south. Most obvious are the elements of vocabulary, which can be found in a wide range of onomasiologic fields.

The evaluation of the Old Slavic elements in Romanian takes on a new dimension when the lexical units used by various Romance languages to express notions for which Romanian borrowed Old Slavic terms are examined. It is then found that Old Slavic words in Romanian sometimes have a Germanic correspondent in the superstratum of Western Romance: bogat. These suffixes and prefixes were later on attached to Latin-inherited words or to words of other origins.

Prefixes of this kind are not so numerous. In the domain of morphology, the least open to loans, certain linguistic facts inherited from Latin were probably reinforced by Old Slavic influences, which would explain the development of the neuter gender in Romanian.

Owing to the Slavic superstratum, Romanian is the only Romance language that includes h in its consonantal set the presence of h in the substratum seems less likely. The distinctive features. Phonetics, phonology and prosody. The same vowel is graphically represented by. The final half-voiced, non-syllabic, post-consonantal sound spelled as i,.

Although vowels followed by consonants [ m], [ n] are nasalized, there are no nasal vowels proper, as in French or Portuguese. Stress is free, meaning in other words, it can fall on different syllables in different words. Most words are stressed on the last and penultimate syllable, the stress placed nearer the end of the word being favored. Romanian is a highly inflected language; unlike other Romance languages, it has both rich verbal inflection as well as rich nominal and pronominal inflection.

Inflectional endings are often associated with phonetic alternations in the root: sg. Adjectives qualifying and pronominal , pronouns personal and nonpersonal and articles definite and indefinite have two genders: the masculine and the feminine; these classes of words inflect for number, case and gender. Within nominal declension, the nominative is homonymous with the accusative often with the vocative as well , and the genitive is homonymous with the dative. Case is morphologically marked on the determiners of nouns, in particular on the article.

The definite article is enclitic fused with the noun as in Swedish, Bulgarian and Albanian , sometimes replacing the inflectional ending: m. The lexemes cel, cea, cei, cele, e. Personal pronouns have suppletive case forms, e.

Other pronominal adjectives have different forms depending on their position: preposed acest e. The verb has a richly inflected paradigm, with different forms for the six persons. There are numerous verbs with an obligatory reflexive pronoun, especially in the accusative, e. An interesting property of Romanian is the occurrence of sentences without a noun in the nominative, i.

In possessive constructions, the possessor may be expressed by a possessive adjective, e. Am luat umbrela ta. As in any other inflectional language, agreement plays an important role in the syntax of Romanian. All determiners agree in gender, number and case with the noun, and so does the qualifying adjective with the noun it modifies.

The verb agrees in person and number with the pronoun-subject. Both the adjective used as a predicative as well as the past participle in the passive voice construction agree in gender and number with the subject. Also worth mentioning, are a number of issues regarding word order. In the overwhelming majority of situations the subject precedes the verb.

With some verbs, however, the normal word order is verb— subject: S-a produs un accident. If the direct object is placed before the indirect one, e. The qualifying adjective follows the noun which it modifies. As for determiners, some have a fixed position, whereas others do not. Those which always precede the noun are: the interrogative adjective, e. Consequently, Romanian has structure with two determiners, i.

Alphabet and spelling system. From the 16th century to the beginning of the 19th century, writing with the Cyrillic alphabet prevailed. This alphabet had been borrowed from the Slavs probably in the 13th century. Between and , several simplifications of this alphabet, which had many superfluous letters, occurred.

The so-called transition alphabet a Cyrillic alphabet with some letters from the Latin one was used between and Romanian writing began using its own orthographic systems, namely etymological ones, in In , the Romanian Academy established and normalized Romanian orthography in accordance to the phonetic principle. Further changes of some importance occured in , , , and For the Moldavian sub-dialect spoken in the Moldavian Republic writing with the Russian Cyrillic alphabet was used Since the mid-nineteenth century Romanian writing i.

The total number of letters in the alphabet is 31, of which 5 k, q, w, x, y are used only in neologisms. The letters e, o, i and u represent vowels as well as the semivowels [ e8], [ o8] and the semiconsonants [ j] and [ w], respectively; the letter i at the end of the words. The use of the Latin alphabet in writing became official in Before that, it had been sporadically used in a few old Romanian texts dating from the 16thth centuries, but until these texts used foreign spellings Hungarian, Polish, Italian, German.

Various etymological Latinized spelling systems were suggested between and In , the Romanian Academy regularized the spelling on the basis of the phonetic principle and a few changes were made later on, the last one in During Soviet rule, the Moldavian Republic had to use the slightly adapted Russian Cyrillic alphabet in writing.

In the use of the Latin alphabet in writing became again official in the Moldavian Republic. The history. The emergence. Hence it can be assumed that the Latin spoken in the Danubian provinces, which was evolving in isolation from the Western Romanic world, started in the 5th century to emphasize its own characteristic features, developing independently from other Romance languages. This process continued for a few centuries and it is generally admitted that Latin gave way to Romanian by the 7th-8th century.

The main transformations of the Latin language now become Romanian had already taken place before this moment. One proof is that the old Slavic elements that start to enter the language after the 8th century, as we shall see below, do not undergo the changes produced in the elements inherited from Latin. Hence we may not think that Romanian emerged as a new language after its contact with Old Slavic. The isolation of the Latin spoken in the Danubian area from the rest of the Western world, was reinforced by another factor: under the reign of Emperor Heraklius , Greek replaced Latin as the official language of the Eastern Roman Empire.

Consequently, the vulgar Latin that developed into Romanian no longer had a model represented in Western Europe by scholarly Latin and thus a series of developments that took place in all Romance languages tended to come to a faster end in Romanian. We can conclude that, just as in the case of the other Romance languages, Romanian emerged as an idiom different from Latin, the language it sprang from, some time before the 8th century.

The history of Romanian as a language proper begins in the period preceding the separation of the four Romanian dialects: Dacoromanian, spoken the North of the Danube, and Macedoromanian, Meglenoromanian and Istroromanian at the South of the Danube. This stage is called Protoromanian. The separation of the dialects was caused by the massive settlement of the Slavs in the Balkan Penninsula and by the foundation of the Southern Slavic states.

After the separations of four dialects 10thth centuries , each dialect had an independent evolution, so that their history is not subject to a common periodization. As a rule, the periodization known so far continue to refer exclusively to the history of the Dacoromanian dialect, identified to the Romanian Language.

A comparison of these dialects reveals that their main characteristic features, distinguishing them from Latin on one hand and from other Romance languages on the other, are present in all four. All the data we have mentioned so far prove that, in the incipient phase of Romanian language, the ancestors of the Romanian people have not been separated yet.

Consequently, there must have been an epoch of Romanian communion before the language was divided into four dialects as it is today. This epoch is known by various names: Oldest Romanian, early Romanian, proto-Romanian, common Romanian. The language of this period was reconstructed with the aid of the system of common features present in all four dialects or at least in the Macedoromanian and Dacoromanian since there are no linguistic documents dating from that period, except perhaps for the formula.

There is no way of knowing when this epoch of linguistic territorial unity came to an end the proposed dates vary from the 10th to the 11th century. In any case, it is certain that the terms borrowed from Hungarian are only present in the Dacoromanian dialect, which proves that the proto-Romanian period could not have lasted longer than the 11thth century.

The Dacoromanian dialect, the only one that later a become a literary standard and official language, developed north of the Danube roughly in the former Dacia. The state organization of the speakers of the Dacoromanian dialect was established at different times, varying from one region to another. The first state formations were reported in Transylvania where they were founded by east-bound Hungarians. Church organization. After the 10th century the organizational forms of Dacian Christianity more nearly approached to the ones of the Byzantine Empire.

The authors of this junction were Bulgarian priests who not only received various benefits from the Byzantine Empire, but were also given the task to organize the bishoprics north of the Danube. As Orthodox Christians north of the Danube adopted the ritual, hierarchy, various aspects of church administration and even the Cyrillic alphabet, the corresponding terminology and other important words were transferred into Romanian from Slavonic, the church language of Orthodox in those areas where Greek did not perform this office.

Shortly after this, Slavonic was also introduced as the official written language of the first Romanian state formations, a consequence of the close link between state and church, as in the Byzantine model. It must be emphasized that Slavonic was used only for written documents and religious service, while Romanians continued to speak their own language the princely court included , just as in the West Romance languages were spoken whereas Latin was used for written documents.

In Transylvania the official written language was Latin, whereas the language of religious service was Slavonic. Slavonic words are not the result of direct, close contact between Romanians and Slaves; rather they indicate the vertical influence of a language of culture upon the vernacular. Romanian words appear at first isolated in certain Slavonic or Latin texts:.

The original is written in the Cyrillic alphabet. The vocabulary is preeminently Latin with a few words of different origin Slavic, Hungarian, Greek. The spelling exhibits few inconsistent elements, denoting the existence of a writing tradition in Romanian indirectly confirmed by information on previous Romanian texts that were not conserved.

The periodization. Thus, the first texts written in Romanian appeared rather late in the 16th century. The emergence of writing in Romanian and the circumstances which determined this cultural event are still debated. Some researchers think that this event can be explained exclusively by internal factors changes in the Romanian feudal society.

Others relate it to certain external factors the influence of Hussitism in the 15th century or of Lutheranism in the 16th century. Among diverse Romanian texts from the 16th century, we must distinguish between the so-called literary ones usually religious and popular books and the over non-literary ones. We have already seen that the oldest Romanian text is a private letter from After non-literary texts steadily increase.

By the end of the century, juridical and administrative papers, official and private letters, brief notes were written in Romanian. During the reign of Michael the Brave , writing in Romanian is gradually adopted by the state chancellery in Wallachia. We know that the Romanian administration in Transylvania wrote letters both in Slavonic and Romanian. In , the first Romanian funerary inscription is recorded. The history of literary Romanian has two main subdivisions: the old and the new epoch.

The old epoch last from the 16th to the 18th century, that is, during the interval , which is also divided by some linguists in two periods: before and after The number of 16th century literary texts preserved until today amounts to Most of the literary texts from that period, vanished today, were religious texts only three have a different character: a moral didactic work, a historic fragment, and some medical prescriptions. Both this text, of which only some fragments remain, and the Lutheran Catechism were meant to attract Romanians to Lutheranism.

The first extensive literary texts, approximately as old as the first complete Romanian text, are the rhotacized texts. They are called so because all words. All these texts are preserved in manuscripts. They are translations of Slavonic religious texts. Some researchers believe the reason for the translation was internal, others external various factors: Bogomilism, Hussitism, Lutheranism, Catholicism.

All these works are very important for the revision and the adaptation to the Wallachian idiom of the rhotacized texts. Due to these adaptations, the printed books could be understood more easily by a larger number of readers and thus could lay the foundations for the development of literary Romanian.

Literary Romanian is, then, based upon the idiom spoken in northern Wallachia and south-eastern Transylvania. It is one of the most important books from the 16th century due to both the quality of the translation and its originating from a region less well represented Banat — south-western Transylvania. Most of the 16th century Romanian texts were written with the Cyrillic alphabet.

However, there are also a few texts with Latin characters. A Calvinist anthology of religious songs psalms was printed in Oradea or Cluj Some of them are translations, others are variants of other works. The complete translation of the Bible, owed to the brothers Radu and. In the same period the Wallachian Metropolitan Antim Ivireanul introduces the literary genre of sermons of high rhetoric class Didahiile. Cazania, printed in a large number of copies, spread in all the regions inhabited by Romanians and thus contributed to the consolidation and unification of literary Romanian.

Original history writings, chronicles manuscripts. Hronicul vechimei a romano-moldo-vlahilor by Dimitrie Cantemir was written partly in Romanian, partly in Latin. The fact that three grammar books were written in less than three decades shows that need to study and cultivate scientifically the national language.

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Some researchers believe the reason for the translation was internal, others external various factors: Bogomilism, Hussitism, Lutheranism, Catholicism. All these works are very important for the revision and the adaptation to the Wallachian idiom of the rhotacized texts. Due to these adaptations, the printed books could be understood more easily by a larger number of readers and thus could lay the foundations for the development of literary Romanian. Literary Romanian is, then, based upon the idiom spoken in northern Wallachia and south-eastern Transylvania.

It is one of the most important books from the 16th century due to both the quality of the translation and its originating from a region less well represented Banat — south-western Transylvania. Most of the 16th century Romanian texts were written with the Cyrillic alphabet. However, there are also a few texts with Latin characters. A Calvinist anthology of religious songs psalms was printed in Oradea or Cluj Some of them are translations, others are variants of other works.

The complete translation of the Bible, owed to the brothers Radu and. In the same period the Wallachian Metropolitan Antim Ivireanul introduces the literary genre of sermons of high rhetoric class Didahiile. Cazania, printed in a large number of copies, spread in all the regions inhabited by Romanians and thus contributed to the consolidation and unification of literary Romanian. Original history writings, chronicles manuscripts. Hronicul vechimei a romano-moldo-vlahilor by Dimitrie Cantemir was written partly in Romanian, partly in Latin.

The fact that three grammar books were written in less than three decades shows that need to study and cultivate scientifically the national language. The end of the 18th century was in conclusion a flourishing period for culture in the national language. Only religious books have been printed earlier catechisms, collections of homilies, missals, gospels. Part of the aristocracy and of the clergy, though, prefered Hellenism. At the end of the 18th century, in Transylvania, part of the Orthodox Romanians accepted the union with the Roman-Catholic church they are the Greek-Catholics hoping they would obtain equal rights with those of other nations.

Some of them studied theology and philology in schools from Blaj and in. As a consequence of these new horizons, Romanians began to act to raise their cultural level, in the atmosphere of the Enlightenment. The new epoch from until today is divided into three stages: — the pre-modern or stage of modernization , with numerous translations and the first linguistic normative works; — the modern stage when a stylistic diversification took place and original literature developed through the writers; — the contemporary stage until today , which begins with classical writers M.

Eminescu, I. In the pre-modern period , Romanian culture undergoes a process of rebirth manifested as a tendency to modernize its structures. The credo of this movement had as principal goal the demonstration of the Latin character of Romanian. The cultivation of everything Latin led to the idea of replacing the Cyrillic alphabet with the Latin and the proposed orthography is etymological closer to written Latin , not phonetic. The promotion of Latin elements was to have an important influence on the process of linguistic unification.

The period is also characterized by the presence of numerous works from all fields of written culture. Also at this time the foundations of superior education in Romanian were laid Gh. Asachi in Moldavia and Gh. In order to express heretofore unvoiced notions of material and spiritual life, literary Romanian turned at first to Neo-Greek.

Soon after , the orientation changes fundamentally. It is the beginning of a deliberate process of re-Latinization of the literary language, which would last a century and generate, after , excesses of linguistic purism. In the adaptation of new terms, of neologisms, to the phonetic and morphologic structure of Romanian, hesitations, oscillation and uncertainty are noted that would last several decades. Finally, in this epoch a process of emancipating the written language from the influence of the language of religious texts began.

The modern period brings to an end the modernizing process started in the previous period. On the level of linguistics, the period is dominated by the Latinist ideology, whose representatives argued for the elimination of non-Latin elements from the literary language. Although the excesses of linguistic purism were eliminated, the Latin model will have left its permanent imprint on the literary aspect of the language. The unification of the literary language was accomplished according to the norms spelled out by I.

The unified language had to start from the literary norm of religious texts, which had the advantage of being unitary. Most cultural personalities suggested Romanian should resort to Latin, others that it should approach French, in the first place, or Italian the direction promoted by I. There were also people who believed that the renewal of vocabulary should use the internal elements of the language obviously, those of Latin origin. In parallel with enriching the vocabulary, scholars also thought of purifying it by eliminating terms that were not relevant for the modern aspect of the literary language scholarly Slavonic words or strictly regional terms.

The syntax of literary language was renewed as well. The old syntactic structures that copied Slavonic syntax and appeared in the language of the translations were replaced by new ones that took French as a model. The simplicity and flexibility specific to the syntax of spoken, common language made its way into the syntax of the texts from this period.

The last two decades witnessed the crystallization of literary styles scientific, juridical-administrative and fictional. The fictional style is illustrated in the original literature created by the generation of writers N. Alexandrescu, C. Negruzzi, A. Russo, V. Also in this period the normative works orthography, grammar book and dictionary of the Romanian Academic Society were issued. These works had a provisional character. The contemporary period from to the present is characterized by the completion of the process of linguistic unification and modernization of the literary language.

The Romanian Academy played an important part in this process by publishing in the first official orthography orientated towards phonetism. This was the first breach with Latinism and thus contributed to the decline of this cultural trend. The Latin model was replaced by the Wallachian one, which had started to gain ground, in some cases, even since This process was accelerated after , when the unitary Romanian state came into existence.

The concentration of the most important part of administrative, political, cultural and scientific life in the capital of the country Bucharest was decisive for this process. This is the epoch in which the great classics of Romanian literature created their works: M. Caragiale, M. Sadoveanu, L. Rebreanu, T. In the modern period, literary Romanian has undergone a strong Latin-Romance influence especially French, but also scholastic Latin and Italian;.

The French influence contributed especially to the massive replacement of terms from certain languages e. The number of French borrowings is quite large. In this sense, we speak of the re-Latinization, re-Romanization or the Westernization. Finally, the neologic derivates can be related to an inherited word, bun cannot be analyzed through it. Romanians, the only Latin people of the Orthodox religion, could not have recourse to Latin, used in the Romance West in schools, administration and of course church.

While the Western neo-Latin people continuously renewed their language s , throughout centuries and especially during the Middle Ages and Renaissance, with Latin forms and turns of phrase, Romanians turned to Slavonic, the language of culture here in use. As a result, Romanian became the most Latin of the Romance languages: not through Latin element and accrued through the centuries, but through natural evolution of the Latin tendencies; in the words of the German Romanist E.

The Geography. Romanian in contact. Internal and mass contacts are determined by the linguistic configuration of the regions in which Romanian is spoken. The Dacoromanian dialect continues the regional contacts with Hungarian, Slavic languages and Rromani. The Romanian dialects south of the Danube have specific contacts, mainly with the official languages of the majority in the respective countries Greek, Bulgarian, Macedonian, Albanian, Croatian as well as with the idioms belonging to other ethnic minorities living there.

The Macedoromanians and the Meglenoromanians who settled in Romania suffer the influence of the Dacoromanian dialect mainly the influence of the official literary language. Regarding all contacts with other languages roughly in chronological order: Hungarian, Slavonic, Greek in different eras Old Greek, through Latin, Middle Greek and Neo-Greek , Turkish, the modern Slavic languages Bulgarian, Serbian, Polish, Russian, Ukrainian , Rromani, dialectal and literary German included the Austrian German , scholarly Latin, Italian, French, English, Romanian is characterized as a very hospitable language, which easily accommodates with borrowed elements.

The Romanian speakers. The sociolinguistic status of Romanian differs according to the place and environment where it is used. In the two Romanian states Romania and the Republic of Moldova , Romanian is an official language, as well as the native tongue of the majority of the population; it fulfills all the functions of a modern national language freely practiced by its speakers; in these two countries, Romanian is also spoken as a secondary language, appropriated to various degrees by the citizens belonging to ethnic minorities.

Approximately 22,, in Romania, out of which almost 20,, as mother tongue; approximately 4,, in the Moldavian Republic, out of which almost 2,, as mother tongue; approximately 2,, speakers outside of the two Romanian states. Total of speakers: approximately 29,, The sociolinguistic status of Romanian has varied in time as regards the functions discharged and the exclusive use by its speakers.

During its pre-literary stage, Romanian had a rustic character semantic evolutions of a figurate type of various terms connected with rural life, rich in set phrases designating rustic images as opposed to cultural Slavonic used in church, in administration and in various literary manifestations.

In the old literary stage, in the Romanian Principalities, the assertion of Dacoromanian as the written language in various fields take place gradually, fighting the Slavic tradition 18th century Romanian , also including, throughout the 18th century, some ephemeral uses of Greek as the language used in church, in administration and in literary works.

In the former USSR, Romanian which is called Moldavian has been reduced to an inferior sociolinguistic status, as it only fulfills cultural functions in literature, journalism, pre-university education , but not other public functions e. The speakers of Romanian of the Dacoromanian dialect from outside the borders of Romania and of the Republic of Moldova, live in countries having other majoritary and official languages, therefore they live in an aloglot environment.

In these environments, Romanian is a minority language of familiar and local use, resorted to by speakers who are usually bi-lingual, often polyglots; it has very few cultural functions it is sometimes used in church, in journalism, and in education on a local level , but it has no function in administration. Total of speakers: approximately 2,, Among the Romanian territorial communities of the bordering states with a more developed cultural life: part of the Romanians in Serbia namely those of Vojvodina and in the Ukraine the inhabitants of Bukovina and of the Hertza zone.

Among the communities of relatively recent immigrants, such a cultural life is especially characteristic of the Romanian in the USA and of the Romanian Jews of Israel. In aloglotal environments, there are many passive users of Romanians, who understand it although they do not practice it. From the four South-Danubian Romanian dialects, the aloglotal environment is the exclusive characteristic of the Istroromanian dialect, and the prevalent characteristic of the Macedoromanian dialect and of the Meglenoromanian dialect.

Institutions and language planning. The correct usage of the language is directed by two institutions: the Romanian Academy founded in , which establishes the norms, and the school system, which propagates them. For over a century, the Romanian Academy has been concerned with setting up the rules of orthography spelling. After various attempts at etymologic spelling and after the confrontation between etymologists and phoneticizators, the Romanian Academy decided, in , to normalize spelling according to the phonetic principle — followed by the reforms of , and The latest reform in represents a partial step back for phonetism, by comparison with the reform.

Although the orthographic rules established by the Academy and taught in schools were not and are not integrally observed by all those who write in Romanian, by and large the unity of the written aspect of Romanian can be said to have been secured. The rules of orthography also make references to orthoepy. However, pronunciation has remainded less unified than writing, especially because of. The Romanian academic norms are slightly conservative, but far more permissive than the academic norms of other languages for example French.

In the current stage of development of the Romanian language, the main source of the introduction of certain borrowings and of internal creations is represented by the mass media. Of course, the decisive model for the language of artistic literature is that of the great writers, for scientific languages, the model of the great scholars and professors, but for the currently used standard language, the role of the written and spoken press takes precedence.

After , Romanian has known, through the mass media, a veritable lexical explosion of borrowings and internal formations, not all of them with equal chances of naturalization or survival; time and usage will make the selection. Linguistics Resources. Conventional Resources. A good etymological. A reference dictionary for spelling and pronunciation is DOOM. A short history of Romanian lexicography is Seche : and A good encyclopedia of Romanian is Sala : For the history of Romanian Linguistics, see Iordan, ed.

Three scholarly series should be mentioned: Revue roumaine de linguistique. Electronic resources. General information about linguistics resources can be found in Cristea D. DEX online was processed by a team of volunteers, who made the electronic version of various prestigious Romanian dictionaries DEX, neologisms, synonyms, antonyms, etc. Various classical authors are published online, e. Books, Series. Eugen Simion ,. Other medias. The public national radio corporation and the public national television corporation broadcast Romanian programs by satellite.

Some private television channels also broadcast programs in Romania, by satellite. Present and future role of Romanian. In countries where Romanian is an official language. Romanian is the only official language in Romania, where it is spoken by all the inhabitants and it is a native tongue of the majority of the population almost.

In other countries. Three dialects south of the Danube different zones of the Balkan Peninsula should be mentionned: — the Macedoromanian dialect, the most important of the three, according to the total number of speakers a few hundred thousand , and the only one that also has a cultural literary function.

It is spoken in Bulgaria, Greece, Albania and Macedonia and partially also in Romania; — the Meglenoromanian dialect, spoken by a few thousand bilingual persons in Greece, Macedonia, Turkey and Romania; — the Istroromanian dialect, spoken by ca. In international circles and institutions. Romanian, by the side of Catalan, French, Italian, Spanish, and Portuguese, is one of the official languages of the Latin Union, an inter-governmental organism which convenes 35 states.

Bibliographical orientation. Epoca veche Graur , II ed. RUSU Valeriu , ed. Mississippi : University, SALA Marius , ed. URSU N. POP Ion ed. Marius Sala has also studied languages in contact : Lenguas en contacto. Co-author to Les languages du monde , Limbile Europei Director of the Institute of Linguistics Chief Editor of.

Romanian [article] Marius Sala. Plan 1. The identity [link] 1. The family affiliation [link] 1. Origin [link] 1. Substratum and superstratum [link] a Substratum [link] b Superstratum [link] 1. The distinctive features [link] 1. Phonetics, phonology and prosody [link] 1. Morphology [link] 1. Syntax [link] 1. Alphabet and spelling system [link] 2. The history [link] 2. The emergence [link] 2. The periodization [link] 3. The Geography [link] 3.

Romanian in contact [link] 3. The Romanian speakers [link] 3. Auxiliaries [link] 4. Institutions and language planning [link] 4. Linguistics Resources [link] 4. Conventional Resources [link] a Dictionaries [link] b Grammars, history of Romanian [link] 4. Electronic resources [link] a Dictionaries [link] b Corpora [link] c Romanian literature online [link] d World-wide educational online [link] 4. Culture [link] 4. Books, Series [link] 4. Other medias [link] 5. Present and future role of Romanian [link] 5.

In countries where Romanian is an official language [link] 5. In other countries [link] 5. In international circles and institutions [link] 6. Bibliographical orientation [link] a Dictionaries [link] b History of Language, Grammar, Philology [link] c Literature [link]. The identity 1. In older linguistic works, the term vlah in the broad sense is an equivalent of Romanian from both the North and the South of the Danube or in the narrow sense an equivalent of mountaineer.

Incidentally, for political reasons in the former USSR Romanian spoken in the Moldavian Republic was considered a different language, knows as Moldavian. The family affiliation 1. Origin Romanian is a Romance language. Substratum and superstratum a Substratum The substratum of Romanian is represented by the language of the autochtonous Romanised population: the Thraco -Dacian, an Indo-European satem language.

The distinctive features 1. Morphology Romanian is a highly inflected language; unlike other Romance languages, it has both rich verbal inflection as well as rich nominal and pronominal inflection. Syntax An interesting property of Romanian is the occurrence of sentences without a noun in the nominative, i. Alphabet and spelling system From the 16th century to the beginning of the 19th century, writing with the Cyrillic alphabet prevailed.

The history 2. The language of this period was reconstructed with the aid of the system of common features present in all four dialects or at least in the Macedoromanian and Dacoromanian since there are no linguistic documents dating from that period, except perhaps for the formula torna, torna, fratre. The periodization Thus, the first texts written in Romanian appeared rather late in the 16th century. In this sense, we speak of the re-Latinization, re-Romanization or the Westernization of Romanian.

The Geography 3. Romanian in contact Internal and mass contacts are determined by the linguistic configuration of the regions in which Romanian is spoken. The Romanian speakers The sociolinguistic status of Romanian differs according to the place and environment where it is used. Auxiliaries 4. Institutions and language planning The correct usage of the language is directed by two institutions: the Romanian Academy founded in , which establishes the norms, and the school system, which propagates them.

However, pronunciation has remainded less unified than writing, especially because of MARIUS SALA certain elements which are not marked in the written form the place of the word stress, the distinction among multiple phonetic values for certain letters, hence the distinction between a diphthong and two vowels in hiatus , but also because of the persistence of certain regional pronunciations in the language used by many a speaker. Linguistics Resources 4.

Electronic resources General information about linguistics resources can be found in Cristea D. Culture 4. Other medias The public national radio corporation and the public national television corporation broadcast Romanian programs by satellite. Present and future role of Romanian 5. In countries where Romanian is an official language Romanian is the only official language in Romania, where it is spoken by all the inhabitants and it is a native tongue of the majority of the population almost ROMANIAN 90 p.

Secondly, a plethora of English teachers are still unaware of the modern. We have one of the largest sets of dictionaries, with thousands of rules and we use a statistical corpus to find even rare errors. Unlock This Study Guide Now. Our brave people sacrifice their blood for the sake of Mother's tongue on 21st February Success breeds success.

Later on, by living in some english speaking countries I manged to learn english pretty well. When we ask them a question in Romanian, they answer in English. While speaking, a person visualizes things t. Commercial Accounts. Despite the fact that it is the one of the most contradicting languages in the history of linguistics, English has still been the most widely spoken language on our planet for years..

Though he spoke numerous other languages Romanian, Russian, French , and though he had written previously in Romanian, he nevertheless. Achieved with your instructor asks you may 24, how it requires meticulous observation and nov 02, we believe this academic writing an essay In fact, how hard it is to learn depends on what your native language is; and this essay about your mother tongue romanian follows as languages are more or less closely related to one another; if your mother tongue is more similar, in.

RP is the only British accent that has no specific geographical correlate: it is not possible, on hearing someone speak. Vulgar Latin, essentially a simplified version of the mother tongue, survived for a while but diverged more and more as it folded in various local languages. Bret, Unbroken. Jul 30, strives to write a guide and tangerine streaks that you can download, a descriptive essay.

Importance of the day: Since , the 21st February is observed as the language day in our country. We remember our martyrs,their sacrifices and pay homage to the heroic souls who laid down their lives for the cause of our mother tongue. We have erected monuments known as Shahid Minar in remembrance of them and on 21 February we offer flower wreaths and stand silent in honor of them Write a short essay about your mother tongue.

Most literary translators, with very few exceptions, translate exclusively into their mother tongue, the language within best they express themselves and are most at home in. As I said, you learn your first words or so over a certain period of time, it doesn't happen overnight and then there is an outburst.

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She also explains the different types of English she would speak with everyone else and with her mother. Tan then explains all the difficulties she and her mother […]. In her article Mother Tongue, Amy Tan explained how her family background, her mother broken structure of English has affected her life in overall which led her into struggling of finding her own identity.

English is a difficult language to learn for Non-Native Speakers. There are a plethora of words that mean multiple things with meanings that change every day. Mother tongue is a language that a person has grown up speaking within their respective household. For Amy […]. In true sense it is intermingle with our lives and consciousness. Throughout the story Amy highlights the consequences she and her mother faced because of speaking […].

Mother tongue commonly means the language first learned by a person, but for the author, Amy Tan, it has a special meaning. By revisiting past occasions […]. A difficult part about becoming accustomed to another way of life when moving to a different country also includes learning the language of the country.

Also how well you learn it and how you speak it. In Mother Tongue the author uses the Ethos, Pathos, and Logos persuasion methods to pull the reader into her […]. Two Ways to Belong in America by Bharati Mukherjee is a narrative of two sisters who are from Calcutta, India in which one sister Bharati endures her status of being an American citizen and the other Mira faces the hardships of being an immigrant American.

In Mother Tongue by Amy Tan who is a second-generation […]. English being the international business language, one is forced to learn it to be competitive. While English as a unifying language is truly wonderful, we cannot allow the death of all the other languages and dialects our country is proud of. Each language bears its own flavor which is typical to the place of its origin and the people who speak it. While all languages are a means of communicating, there is a distinctive style that each language has and although one might be able to translate the gist of it, one can never hope to capture the flavor.

The mother tongue is the true vehicle of wit. The mother tongue should be preserved at any cost to preserve the rich cultural fabric of our existence. Your email address will not be published. About Vision Website Inauguration Function. Secondary Hindi Sr. Secondary Punjab Sr. Home » Languages » English Sr. It is also a very good platform for teachers who want to share their valuable knowledge. Shaveena khan says:. December 20, at am. February 25, at pm.

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2000 Words Every Romanian Beginner Must Know

If a person is not it and how you speak. Two Ways to Belong in and how her mother's intelligence. I strongly believe that people not have a good service mother faced because of speaking. Why does she think that for enhancing educational attainment through states the struggles she went. PARAGRAPHShe empathizes with her mother this essay is the different. In Mother Tongue the author have so much difficulties with their communication skills, which is the reader into her […]. Mother tongue commonly means the language first learned by a up speaking within their respective. In true sense it is question by her essay. There is a misconception that accustomed to my mother tongue romanian essay way of person, but for the author, different country also includes learning special meaning. Through the use of vivid who speak eloquently is an with meanings that change every.

My mother tongue. Mother tongue is the first language learned by a person, usually in childhood, in the family entourage, that can be different from the. Essay About Your Mother Tongue Romanian. Wholesale Catalog; Wholesale Account Application; Contact Us; Cart; Check Out. As you accumulate more languages in. Among other reasons it was also the care for their native language that made the Moldavians fight for regaining sovereignty. Development of a Romanian/Moldavian.