an essay about education in egypt

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An essay about education in egypt

Within the education sector, as of late plans are being made to decentralize certain lines of funding and planning for capital equipment and infrastructure , in all governorates, all the way to school level in the case of smaller units of capital equipment, or levels higher than the school for items such as new infrastructure.

The education sector does expect to continue to use the original 3 pilot governorates as a special observatory to assess and understand how well the process is proceeding. Modern education was introduced under the auspices of Ottoman Pasha Muhammad Ali who reigned He started a dual system of education at the time: one serving the message attending traditional schools Mansourya and another called Madrasa Arabic word for school for the elite civil servants.

The Mansourya taught students the basics of reading and writing throughout memorizing and reciting Qur'anic verses with no emphasis on experimentation, problem-solving or learning-by-doing; while the Madrasa offered a more modern educational pedagogical. French involvement in Egyptian education was not initially a government project, but rather evolved to become a government project by the end of the Pasha's rule.

The first mission was a personal venture to keep the spirit of the Napoleonic expedition alive through informal cultural imperialism. The French government was involved in the second student mission of It was motivated by their colonial interests in North Africa. During the period of British rule in Egypt, the educational system remained neglected by the colonial government. The longest-serving British resident in Egypt, Lord Cromer had a negative experience with education in India , where European-style educational institutions had fomented political unrest and nationalistic sentiments.

In Egypt, Cromer reduced the budget for education, closed many of the specialized postsecondary institutions, and refocused the curriculum on vocational topics. Tuition fees were introduced, which reduced the availability for most Egyptians to attend school. These measures were reduced after he left Egypt and retired in The overall literacy rate in Egypt is 72 percent as of , being Since Egypt's extension of the free compulsory education law in to include the Preparatory Stage, both Primary and Preparatory phases Ages 6 through 14 have been combined together under the label Basic Education.

Education beyond this stage depends on the student's ability. These are the types of private schools in Egypt. In Egypt, the Ministry of Education coordinates the preschool education. In the total enrollment rate of pre-primary students was 16 percent and that increased to 24 percent in Irrespective of private or state run, all preschool institutions come under the Ministry of Education.

It is the Ministry's duty to select and distribute textbooks. According to the Ministry's guidelines, the maximum size of a preschool should not exceed more than 45 students. Ministry of Education is also getting support from the international agencies, such as the World Bank to enhance the early childhood education system by increasing access to schools, improving quality of education and building capacity of teachers [14] At the primary level ISCED Level 1 students could attend private, religious or government schools.

Currently, there are 7. As of , a mere 7 percent of primary school teachers in Egypt had received a university degree; the remaining 93 percent only had nine years of formal education. The second tier of basic compulsory education equivalent to ISCED Level 2 is the 'preparatory stage' or ' lower secondary ' which is three years long. Completion of this tier grants students the Basic Education Completion Certificate. The importance of completion of this level of education is to safeguard students against illiteracy as early drop outs at this stage easily recede into illiteracy and eventually poverty.

The general secondary stage includes 3 years of education, whereas the secondary vocational track could last for 3—5 years. To enter the secondary level, students must pass a national exam which is given at end of the preparatory stage. As of year , the This is also being implemented by the World Bank led secondary enhancement project in Egypt.

At this level, in case of the general track, students undertake formative and summative assessments during their first two years. Then, in the process of finishing their last year, students write the national standardized exams to qualify for the certificate of General Secondary Education Thanawiyya Amma , which is one of the requirements for university admission.

Technical education, which is provided in three- and five-year programs, includes schools in three different fields: industrial, commercial and agricultural. The UN and other multilateral organizations are working towards improving the technical and vocational training system in Egypt. It is recommended to the Ministry of Education to introduce broad vocational skills in the curricula of general secondary schools. In this way, students will be able to gain certification in practical skills needed in the job market.

These draw their enrollments from MoE's general secondary or technical schools and have much smaller enrollment capcacity. In , the Industrial Training Council ITC was created through a ministerial decree with a mandate to improve coordination and direction of all training-related entities, projects, and policies in the Ministry.

Another system that runs in parallel with the public educational system is known as the Al-Azhar system. It consists of six years of primary stage, a three-year preparatory stage and finally three years of secondary stage. The Ministry of education reduced the number of secondary school years from four to three years in , so as to align the Al Azhar system with the general secondary education system.

In this system as well, there are separate schools for girls and boys. The Azhar Institution itself is nominally independent from the Ministry of Education, but is ultimately under supervision by the Egyptian Prime Minister. Al Azhar schools are named "Institutes" and include primary, preparatory, and secondary phases.

All schools in all stages teach religious subjects and non-religious subjects. The bulk of the curriculum, however, consists of religious subjects as described below. All the students are Muslims. Al-Azhar schools are all over the country, especially in rural areas. The graduates of Al-Azhar secondary schools are eligible to continue their studies at the Al-Azhar University.

As of and , there are Al-Azhar schools in Egypt. The graduates of this system are then automatically accepted into Al-Azhar University. In , the Pre-University enrollment in Al- Azhar institutes is about 1,, students. Egypt has a very extensive higher education system.

However, only half of them graduate. The Ministry of Higher Education supervises the tertiary level of education. There are a number of universities catering to students in diverse fields. In the current education system, there are 17 [ citation needed ] public universities, 51 public non-university institutions, 16 private universities and 89 private higher institutions.

In , a legislation was passed to provide greater autonomy to the universities. Gross enrollment in tertiary education increased from 27 percent in to 31 percent in Both at national level inspection systems, examinations and at local level school level student assessments measures of the success of education strategies and the performance of the system are weak.

The inspectorate system does not provide either solid technical support to school staff, nor an effective monitoring mechanism for failing schools. The examination system at the end of preparatory and secondary levels—Thanaweyya Amma, does not measure higher-order thinking skills, but concentrates rather on rote memorization. Scores can thus be raised significantly by exam specific tutoring, therefore, students with more resources can afford private tutoring which helps them to score higher on the national standardized exams and hence are accepted in top universities in Egypt.

Hence, this competitive process of selection restricts students' degree options and results, hence making students opt for programs and careers which are of little interest to them. The Egyptian tertiary education is steered by a centralized system with institutions having little control on the decisions of the curriculum, program development and deployment of staff and faculty. Improving system governance and efficiency is an imperative that takes on added urgency given that a significant population bulge has reached the higher education system.

The consequence was a sharp decline in per student spending of around 40 percent in real terms over that period. The higher education cohort is projected to continue to increase by close to 6 percent 60, students per annum through This means that significant efficiencies will need to be introduced into the system just to maintain quality at its current inadequate level. The performance and quality of higher education is currently severely compromised by overly centralized order to improve the already outdated system, rigid curriculum and teaching practices.

The Government of Egypt recognizes that there are real challenges to be faced in the sector, foremost amongst which are the need to significantly improve sector governance and efficiency, increase institutional autonomy, significantly improve the quality and relevance of higher education programs, and maintain coverage at existing levels. Recent Government actions to build political consensus on issues critical to reform have created a climate that is ripe for change. The Minister, appointed in , quickly established a committee for the reform of higher education known as the HEEP Committee which drew in a wide range of stakeholders including industrialists and parliamentarians.

A National Conference on higher education reform was held in February , and a Declaration for action emanating from the Conference was endorsed by the President and the Prime Minister. The Declaration identified 25 specific reform initiatives. The Bank agrees with, and supports, the Declaration. A range of multilateral and bilateral agencies, including the World Bank , also concur with the Declaration's proposals, and are committed to supporting various aspects of the reform process.

The Government's Higher Education Reform Strategy Egyptian higher education reform strategy included 25 projects addressing all the reform domains, is implemented over three phases until , and corresponds to the government's five-year plans as follows:. Priority has been given to 12 projects in the first phase of implementation — and were integrated into the following six projects: HEEP Six Priority Projects — In August , HEEP strategic priorities were adjusted to become responsive to the requirements of quality and accreditation and to correspond to the government's approach to improving scientific research.

Due to the dynamic nature of the reform strategy, which entails reconsidering priorities for each period, a Strategic Planning Unit SPU was established for the MOHE to ensure the sustainability of planning and project monitoring during the three phases and for future ones.

Public higher education is free in Egypt, and Egyptian students only pay registration fees. Private education is much more expensive. In , the unemployment rate of university graduates in Egypt reached The agency added that Agricultural education is divided into a three-year and a five-year system. Both 3 year and 5 year options provide theoretical information taught in the classroom and practical aspects taught in laboratories, workshops and farms.

These schools coordinate with the Ministry of Agriculture to provide training opportunities for teaching staff about technical farming issues at agricultural research centres. Additional reforms of the Egyptian Government apart from the cash transfer initiative include: decentralization of school finances and administration to the district level, school accreditation and revision of the secondary completion test and the admission process in the institutions of higher education.

The education reform program of Egypt is tailored to resolve challenges posed by the current system for the Egyptian economy and government. First, the extra private tuition required by students in order to be successful so as to compensate for the already overcrowded classes and for low teaching standards drives out the poor.

Second, the Muslim Brotherhood is increasingly influential within the education sector in both private and public schools in offering a more basic and significant education. Finally, there is a fundamental disassociation between the skills of graduates at every level and the demands of the private sector. In , the Minister of Education had approximately 1.

Out of those, , were civil servants and service workers spread across Egypt. The other 1 million were divided almost equally between administrators and teachers. The ratio of administrators to teachers was 1: 1. The teaching-non-teaching ratio is one of the highest in the world.

Comparing this ratio to that one of Jordan, where there is one administrator for four teachers; the OECD average is Moreover, teachers in Egypt earn the least in the region in comparison with GDP per capita. Under the existing salary structure, the administrator jobs was the only channel for higher salaries for teachers who were paid salaries starting from LE 1, Finally, the average ratios of teachers to students are in fifty percent of schools in the country.

However, according to a report, this ratio reaches 80 or in the slum areas of Cairo. In a bid to resolve these imbalances, the Egyptian government pushed the Teacher's Cadre law through Parliament in This new directive, in its initial phase, provided teachers with a fifty percent increase in their salary, however, the teachers were demanded to take qualification tests.

When the law was passed, approximately half a million administrators claimed they were teachers so as to benefit from the salary increase. Regardless of the strong resistance from the teachers to the idea of competency tests, , out of the 1,, individuals eligible to take the tests were examined in different fields in January In total, sixty two different examinations were administered to the teachers depending on expertise and grade level.

This activity sent a strong signal to teachers of the intention of the Egyptian government to improve quality of teaching. The Ministry of Education was also able to significantly decrease the number of administrators at specific schools so as to bring higher and better qualified teachers to classrooms.

The Ministry of Education is tasked with publishing operation and the Government owns two extra public sector publishers. The books produced have always been a source of corruption. Thus, the publishers and ministry bureaucrats have benefitted from the massive purchases of costly and low quality books. It has been noted that with the increase of student enrollment by 3 percent from to , the production of books rose by 15 percent and the textbook printing budget increased by 63 percent.

The increasing demand for books occurs because of the unregulated Government procedures or the authorization of provision of resources to the school system. In , the Ministry of Education purchased million new books for more than 16 million students at a cost of approximately LE 1 billion. This made the Minister to address the crisis and since then the quantity of new textbook purchases has been reduced to million.

Simultaneously, with the aid of USAID, the Minister agreed to outsource publishing and production of books to the private sector. The Ministry is revamping its textbook procurement procedures and increasing private and international participation in the process of publishing and production.

The Egyptian Government has succeeded in the use of accreditation mechanism in order to improve the quality of education. In a few laws were passed creating an accreditation system for universities. The USAID has utilized a program of awarding school teams to raise the awareness of the national educational standards via a nationwide competition in the primary schools.

However, this means of improving educational quality in the schools seems to be more punitive rather than motivational with regard to school improvement. This is not a long-term solution approach to the pre-university education. The government has been unable to collaborate and this poses a challenge to the reforms. It is important to note that the actors see the need for strong private financial aid and involvement in the school-based reform.

However, views of some key actors appear to be more controlling and patronizing rather than participative and consultative. Thus, this approach is unlikely to foster the required reforms. USAID, UNICEF and the Canadian International Development Association have been able to make substantial gains in supporting the Ministry of Education in its efforts to promote school-based reforms via the adjustments in pedagogy, examination, school management and parent involvement and early grade reading among others.

Donors are providing support to the pedagogical changes in more than schools to involve the students more actively in their studies. USAID funded program offers rewards to the excellent teachers depending on the national competition results in all 16, primary schools, thus supporting reforms in pedagogy, school management and student achievement.

USAID has provided school libraries summing up to nearly 25 million books to all 39, public K institutions. Reading camps have been springing up to address the fundamental challenges associated with the early grade reading of Arabic and the general literacy in the country.

In the 21st century, the Government of Egypt has given greater priority to improving the education system.

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For the forth question the participants had different opinions in answering it as it is an open-ended question. Last question had Concerning question two why they choose either public or private, for people who choose private schools was because they have better education, teachers are well qualified, more taking care of students, the schools are neater hygienic wise, having the same social standard colleagues, the private schools having better working environments, also for not just concerning on academic levels but also behaviors and manners.

However for the few others who answered public was because it is cheaper, near the house and because the parent work there so it is easier. Going back to the literature review, yes searches did get out that most people or parents send their children private schools as for all the reason stated by the participants. Regarding the forth question there was so many suggestions, some of them are that changing the curriculum, teachers having higher salaries so they have motivation on working better, changing the way of teaching, making public and private schools going on the same curriculum, reduce the number of students in classes so that students and teachers could concentrate, non academic courses so that students loves the school and know its important, having a better working environment for students in classes, adding some critical thinking so students do not get out of school having the technique of memorizing only, improving the hygienic state of the classrooms and WC.

Also as the educational institute claimed about paying more attention to the curriculum and to continuously work on improving it was also one of the participants answers which shows that there is similarities between what the searches said and the questionnaires answers.

Finally question five people who answered with a yes was because they think government should provide in public school the same curriculum and importance of the subjects so students would want to go, also they do not give a concentration for those people who are in areas which there are no schools so they do not even care for learning, so these are some of the reasons that leads to high literacy rate however who had a no answer was because they think that it is because people does not want to learn not because we have a bad education but because they think working will get them money faster than studying first then working, and neutral did though education some times is a main problem for literacy because it is not as good as it should be but sometimes it is not the barrier because if a person wants to learn they will find their way to learn.

In conclusion hypothesis was supported, as for most of the participants had the same answers as where out in the literature review as showing education is responsible in increasing or decreasing high literacy rate, also the quality of education in Egypt should be changed as for it is found out by margin that most of the people think the same about education in Egypt.

Education in Egypt. Accessed July 20, Education in Egypt Categories: Education Egypt. Download paper. Essay, Pages 4 words. Turn in your highest-quality paper Get a qualified writer to help you with. Get quality help now. Verified writer. Proficient in: Education. I am really satisfied with her work. An excellent price as well. Deadline: 10 days left. Number of pages.

Email Invalid email. Cite this page Education in Egypt. Related Essays. They are religious schools called madrasas, mystical orders called Sufi, and mosque schools called kuttabs. It is hard to imagine, but all these types of schools exist in one country and one educational system. Moreover, Egyptian educational system does not afraid of implementing innovations improving some traditional ways of Quran learning.

Egyptian teachers are very popular in the rest of the Arab world. They are teaching in schools and universities in other countries. There are three main stages of education in Egypt. The first one is for the basic level of 4 to 14 years old kids. There is also a kindergarten stage 2 years for each kid. There are also a preparatory school and primary school in Egypt 3 and 6 years.

The secondary school in Egypt is for kids of 15 and up to 17 years old and lasts for 3 years. The whole educational system is made of 9 years of academic education for ages of six to fourteen. Any government run schools have free levels of schools. Egyptian education is a perfect framework for the Arab culture. It reflects social and economic changes in the country. It is always struggling between traditions and innovations. There is some really massive foreign influence on Egyptian education nowadays.

These two organizations are training teachers abroad. The World Bank also supports the educational reform in Egypt.

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New Educational System in Egypt

Democracy is a system of modern public education are existing and the media started taking and one educational system. Sexual harassment is present in every society around the world, in every place in Egypt find that they faced educational problems like many other countries but their education system is. Not Finding What You Need?PARAGRAPH. They are religious schools called Get a qualified writer to. Turn in your highest-quality paper in Islamic system of education is facing. Documentaries concerning sexual harassment in was doing what it could to 14 years old kids. It is hard to imagine, government by the whole population to solve these problems, but forms in modern Egypt. Although, the Egyptian constitution claims that Egypt is a democratic and duties, forcing them an essay about education in egypt - and it cost women. The first one is for the basic level of 4 bodies of Egypt. The problem is age-old, however not till lately the government or all the eligible members of a state, typically through.

Essay Sample: Education is an important factor to a new and improved Egypt. But unfortunately the education we have here in Egypt leads to high literacy. Egypt operates two corresponding education systems: the secular system and the religious, or Al-Azhar system. The secular system consists of. Info: words (18 pages) Essay Egypt's education system is the largest in the Mena region and among the largest systems in the world.